China Danxia

Country
China
Inscribed in
2010
Criteria
(vii)
(viii)
The conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good" in the latest assessment cycle. Explore the Conservation Outlook Assessment for the site below. You have the option to access the summary, or the detailed assessment.
China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened. © UNESCO
© IUCN/Graeme Worboys

Summary

2020 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
01 Dec 2020
Good
The conservation outlook for the property is generally good. The current state of the values of the property and the trend are respectively satisfactory and stable. The serial nature of the property, with its six widely separated component parts, is complex but the authorities must be commended on the degree to which they have provided a uniformly consistent legal and institutional framework for protection and management. Existing staff and other management resources appear to be adequate in coping with current factors affecting the property and low levels of threat. Protection of the property is assisted by its remoteness from development and the robust character of the geological landscape. Effective protection and management of the natural forest vegetation and biodiversity contributes significantly to the scenic and aesthetic qualities and to the on-going land forming processes. It is necessary to be vigilant in the face of an inevitable increase in visitor numbers and tourism development, as well as pressures from rural development, and astute management intervention will be required to avoid any undesirable impacts. Continuously increasing the level of international understanding of the Danxia geological landscape, through increased collaborative research and scientific publication and wider promotion campaigns, will be important. An integrated management plan including the six components is also necessary to be revised based on the version submitted during the nomination period and each overall plan of the six components. 

Current state and trend of VALUES

Good
Trend
Stable
The current state of the outstanding scenic and aesthetic and geological values of the property is satisfactory and the trend is stable. Remoteness of the property from urban and industrial development and the inherently robust character of the geological landscape combine to provide for a strong degree of integrity for the serial property despite its geographical discontinuity and complexity. All six sites in the property have strong legal protection and active management sufficient to cope with existing and foreseen environmental and human pressures. There is a need for vigilance in the face of the real prospect of substantially increased tourism development and pressures for rural development and construction. Management must also give due attention to protection of the natural forest habitats that add significantly to the overall visual and aesthetic values of the property and are vital to maintain the on-going natural geomorphological processes. Protection of the geological values of the property would be enhanced through greater international scientific exposure of the Danxia formation and landscapes, as well as development of geological monitoring indicators.

Overall THREATS

Low Threat
Overall the threats to the property are at a low to very low level, though in some cases it is difficult to assess due to limited available information. It appears that the more notable threats are from pressure of township and associated infrastructure development, water pollution, construction of tourism facilities and from the growth of visitor numbers and tourism. Threats are generally higher in the buffer zone than inside the property. Existing management capacity appears to be sufficient to respond adequately to current threats.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Mostly Effective
Overall, the protection and management of the property can be assessed as mostly effective and there are no significant concerns. This is an extremely complex serial property comprising six components in six provinces scattered across some 1700 km of Southeast China. The effort made to provide uniformly effective legal, institutional and management mechanisms for protection of the Outstanding Universal Value throughout the property is highly commendable. On-going protection effort should give emphasis to managing the growing pressure from tourism, to the need to give greater international scientific exposure to China Danxia though collaborative research and wider publication, and to prepare an integrated management plan across the whole China Danxia World Heritage property.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
01 Dec 2020

Description of values

An exceptionally beautiful landscape

Criterion
(vii)
China Danxia is an impressive landscape of great natural beauty. Red conglomerate and sandstone have been shaped into spectacular peaks, pillars, cliffs and imposing gorges, together with winding rivers and majestic waterfalls, within a sub-tropical forest setting (World Heritage Committee, 2010).

Oustanding geological features with great variety of distinctive landforms

Criterion
(viii)
The term "Danxia" describes the physical landform characterized by steep cliff slopes and developed from uplifted continental (terrestrial) reddish conglomerate and sandstone, also known as "red-beds". China Danxia is the world’s most outstanding example of this landform. Each of the six component parts of this serial property displays landforms characteristic of the different stages of Danxia landform development, and collectively they illustrate the full extent of geomorphic evolution of the Danxia formation in southeastern China and form a complete sequence of landform evolution (World Heritage Committee, 2010).
Intact sub-tropical forest remnants protecting significant biodiversity values.
The rugged landscapes in the property protect sub-tropical broad leaved evergreen forests and a range of wildlife habitats important for endemic, endangered and threatened species of conservation significance. The forests are mostly secondary, comprising 23 different subtropical vegetation types, and include many ancient trees. In total the property contains 5,772 vascular plant species, more than 40 of which are endemic to the property and more than 600 endemic to China. Of the 34 species on the IUCN Red Data List, two are critically endangered, seven are endangered and 13 are vulnerable. Among the fauna are 836 vertebrates and some 3,000 insect species. Excluding insects, there are 47 species endemic to China and 66 species are listed by CITES. The eastern sites lie within a WWF Global 200 priority ecoregion and a WWF/IUCN Centre of Plant Diversity (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; UNEP/WCMC, 2012).

Assessment information

Low Threat
Overall the threats to the property are at a low to very low level, though in some cases it is difficult to judge because of limited available information. It appears that the more notable threats are from pressure of township and associated infrastructure development, water pollution, construction of tourism facilities and from the growth of visitor numbers and tourism. Threats are generally higher in the buffer zone than inside the property. Existing management capacity appears to be sufficient to respond adequately to current threats.
Invasive Non-Native/ Alien Species
(Introduction of invasive plants and pests)
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Outside site
Alien pest species are reported but specifics are lacking. Nonetheless, the local governments have been developing measures to prevent the invasion. (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b; State Party of China, 2010). Few invasive non-native/ alien species were reported or published.
Housing/ Urban Areas
(Township development and associated infrastructure)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Villages and small towns are common, but the development pressure appears to be mainly in the buffer zone (People’s Republic of China, 2008a). Impacts include visual impacts on the landscapes and environmental fragmentation (IUCN Consultation, 2017). Interim Measures for the Administration of Construction of Residential Houses and Civilian Facilities in Langshan Scenic and Historic Interested Area were issued on April 14th, 2011, to strengthen the planning and construction management, and standardize the construction behavior of folk houses and civil facilities in the of Langshan  Scenic and Historic Interested Area and World Heritage Property (People’s Government of Xinning County, 2012).
Fire/ Fire Suppression
(Wildfires)
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Wildfires occur during the dry season and at times of drought. Early-warning, preparedness and prevention systems are in place (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b; State Party of China, 2010). The management committee of each heritage component has set up a special monitoring, patrol fire emergency, ambulance law enforcement and protection agencies, equipped with management teams and management systems (Peng Hua, 2012)
Tourism/ Recreation Areas
(Visual and physical effects of tourism facilities and infrastructure development)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
There has been a modest increase in annual tourist numbers with steady growth continuing. Current numbers are well below the physical and social carrying capacity, though some congestion occurs at the most popular scenic spots in holiday seasons. Management capacity is sufficient to cope with current tourism pressures, but on-going vigilance is required. A skyway was built in Xiangbi Mountain and Paiya Peak of Longhushan for tourism in 2016 and 2017. (IUCN, 2010; People’s Republic of China, 2008a; Yingtan, 2017; Li Hangfei, 2016). China has carried out large-scale environmental protection inspections, and environmental protection departments have continued to find problems and urge rectification work in Nature Reserves and Scenic Spots (sthjt.sc.gov.cn, 2015; Forestry.gov.cn, 2016; Guizhou.gov, 2018).
However, the gradual and further potential threat from visitors is hard to perceive and monitor, the study of long range impact and forecasting of tourism on the site should be encouraged and supported (if possible, maybe partially funded) by administrative organization (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Water Pollution
(Water and air pollution)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
There were some factories, causing effluents in Danxiashan of Guangdong province, however these have now been closed and relocated to an area from where effluents pose no threat to the values of the site (IUCN Consultation, 2020). The mining factories on Fuyi River upstream of of Langshan, Hu’nan province have caused riverbed pollution and ecological damage in the past (MEP, n.d.; Chen Zhijun, et al., 2016). However, air pollution is low in most areas of the property (IUCN Consultation, 2017). Based on monitoring results, water and air quality in Chishui are good (Ecological and environmental department of Zunyi City, n.d.), good in Taining (People’s Government of Taining County, n.d.), reach class I or II in Langshan (Chen Zhijun, et al, 2016, pp. 70), and are good in Jianglangshan (Chen Minlan, et al, 2017, pp.22).
Logging/ Wood Harvesting, Fishing / Harvesting Aquatic Resources
(Subsistence hunting, fishing, livestock grazing and firewood collection)
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Subsistence living and resource use occur at most sites but with variable degrees of threat (People’s Republic of China 2008a). Impacts include expansion of agricultural areas (IUCN Consultation, 2017). Hunting is forbidden in protected areas of China. Some effective measures have been taken to prevent the impact of subsistence activities on the environment. For example, in order to further implement the opinions of the central committee of CPC and the state council on accelerating the construction of ecological civilization, focus on major protection rather than major development, and improve the ecological environment of waters, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China has decided to implement a total ban on fishing in the Chishui River basin in accordance with the Fisheries Law of the People's Republic of China (Forestry Bureau of Chishui, 2017). Several favorable changes have been achieved in Chihsui: fish species have been improving; River Chief Management system have been playing more effective role; the ecological environment has been improving etc. (Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Chishui, 2020). 
Data Deficient
The mountainous terrain is susceptible to geological and weather event, such as the occurrence of landslide and rockfall and stream flooding. The level of threat is difficult to determine from existing information.
Avalanches/ Landslides
(Geological and weather events)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
The mountainous terrain is susceptible to the occurrence of landslide, rockfall, unstable rock collapses and stream flooding. There has been some localised monitoring and management intervention (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b; Jiang Fuwei, Qiu yan, Li Chunling, 2016). Since 2010, Danxia in Guangdong Province has carried out geological disaster monitoring and surveys of dangerous rock-masses. The policy and action are same in all sites of China Danxia. In 2020, the China Geological Survey Bureau has comprehensively deployed and carried out a series of key tasks for the prevention and control of geological disasters (mnr.gov.cn, 2020; Ministry of Natural Resources of the People's Republic of China, Three-year Action Plan for Geological Disaster Prevention and Control). The geological structure is relatively stable. The unstable areas and rock masses have been cleaned up in a timely manner and so far, no accidental collapse and other types of geological disasters have occurred (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Overall the threats to the property are at a low to very low level, though in some cases it is difficult to assess due to limited available information. It appears that the more notable threats are from pressure of township and associated infrastructure development, water pollution, construction of tourism facilities and from the growth of visitor numbers and tourism. Threats are generally higher in the buffer zone than inside the property. Existing management capacity appears to be sufficient to respond adequately to current threats.
Management system
Highly Effective
A management plan exists for each of the sites in the serial property and there is an integrated management plan for the property as a whole (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b). A Committee has been set up for the entire property, under the dual leadership of MOHURD and provincial government (IUCN Consultation, 2017). During the nomination process of China Danxia, the planning proposed the establishment of the Protection and Management Committee of China Danxia World Heritage by those six provinces. Additionally, the Experts Committee of China Danxia World Heritage and Advisory Panel were also established. Those above-mentioned plans and programs have been implemented during the nomination process and after the successful inscription of China Danxia World Heritage (Peng Hua, 2012). On August 2nd, 2011, the Inaugural Meeting & the First Working Meeting of the China Danxia World Natural Heritage Professional Protection Committee hosted by the China Danxia Landform Application World Natural Heritage Coordination Leading Group and organized by the Taining National Scenic Area Management Committee at Taining, China Danxia World Natural Heritage Professional Protection Committee was formally established. From 2010 to now, the China Danxia World Natural Heritage Protection Committee has held eight consecutive working meetings (Xiao Shizhen, 2018; Cai Xue, 2011;
Jiang Weifeng, Wang Yun, 2012; Xinlang Hunan, 2014; Chen Jianping, 2015; Luo Yilin, 2016; Xu Zhilin, 2017; Zhou Weichao, 2018; Forestry Bureau of Chishui, 2019). 
Effectiveness of management system
Mostly Effective
Generally, there appear to be adequate long-term legislative, regulatory, institutional and traditional protection and management mechanisms for safeguarding the inscribed values of the property at national, provincial and local level. (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b; IUCN Consultation, 2017). After the successful inscription of China Danxia, the main contents of the management plan have been effectively implemented to an adequate level (Peng Hua, 2012). Although each component has its own overall management plan based on its national protective designation, the Management Plan of the whole China Danxia World Natural Heritage Nominated Property submitted when nominated is from 2008 to 2012, so the components of China Danxia are suggested to prepare for new management plans (Forestry Bureau of Chishui, 2019), and an integrated management plan across the whole China Danxia World Heritage property is encouraged. 
Boundaries
Mostly Effective
Boundaries of the property and the buffer zones for each of the component parts are well demarcated and logical with respect to ensuring integrity (IUCN, 2010; People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b). IUCN considers that the boundaries of the nominated property do not meet the requirements set out in the Operational Guidelines with regard to biodiversity values, but would be adequate for protection of aesthetic and earth science values (IUCN, 2010) and the World Heritage Committee also requests the State Party to continue its focus on the protection and effective management of the important biodiversity values (The World Heritage Committee, 2010). Therefore, it may be necessary for some component parts of China Danxia to do more research on the possibility and/or feasibility of the boundaries modification to enhance the protection of the important biodiversity values.
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Highly Effective
The development and management of China Danxia are planned in a thirteenth five-year plan. Local governments put the site’s development and protection as a priority status. It plays an important role in the development of the local areas and the whole country (The thirteenth five-year plan, 2017).
Relationships with local people
Mostly Effective
People from the local communities are involved in management and have a good understanding of the World Heritage status (People’s Republic of China, 2008a). Effective measures were reported to promote the local community development. Some examples are listed below. 1. Ten regions in China have been evaluated as "good" for their poverty alleviation work in 2018, and have been awarded 400 million yuan ($57.9 million) each for their outstanding achievements in poverty alleviation, according to a news conference of the State Council. One of them is Chishui: tourism help generates incomes for local villagers (China Daily, 2019a). 2. Local people have been involved in the tourism development of Taining for many years, working as boatmen in Shangqing stream or others (China Daily, 2019b). The integration of tea culture and tourism has been a pursuit of Taining in recent years, with a tea park built at the center of its most famous Dajinhu Lake scenic area as part of a project of the local government for developing eco-tourism. The park, covering over 33 ha, focuses on growing Wuyi Rock Tea, a famous tea variety in Fujian province, to promote the distinct local tea culture of the region (China Daily, 2019b). 3. Based on an on-the-spot investigation through questionnaires and interviews, it was found that world heritage inscription helped residents to get new understanding about Langshan, and produced larger effect on place identity, place dependent, natural environment perception as well as social-cultural perception. World heritage inscription did reinforce residents’ sense of place and enhance their expectation and support of local tourism development (Zheng Qunming, et al, 2014). 4. Duanshi Village in Danxiashan has been experiencing a good development process: tourism development, the promotion of government and experts and the outside capital also play an important role in the community participation (Yan Ting, 2014). 5. Xianshuiyan rural tourism demonstration site is located at the entrance of Xianshuiyan, Longhushan. It is the first batch of farmhouse demonstration villages supported and built by the management committee of Longhushan with integrated funds. At present, the village has set up a total of 38 rural households with 1,300 beds, of which 14 households are assessed by star standards, including 5 four-star households and 33 three-star households. Farmhouse has become the leading industry for the prosperity of the village and an important part of the tourism reception in Longhushan (Sohu website, 2016). 6. According to statistics, in the first three quarters of 2015, rural tourism in Jiangshan City (Where Jianglangshan is located) received 3.3079 million tourists and its revenue reached 198 million yuan, an increase of 30.6% and 60.1% over the previous year, driving 4,800 rural tourism employees. The city has cultivated and established 7 farmhouses complex, 3 farmhouses cluster villages, and 130 three-star farmhouses (Zhejiang Daily, 2015).
Legal framework
Mostly Effective
All land in the property is State-owned. Protection status varies from site to site but includes national nature reserve, national forest and geopark. The property has protection under the relative laws and regulations of national, provincial and local governments (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b; UNEP/WCMC, 2012). The Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development has issued a circular on the protection and management of China Danxia World Natural Heritage Site (The Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development, 2010).  In addition to the national laws and regulations, each component has its own regulation and/or Measures on Protection and Management.
Law enforcement
Mostly Effective
Enforcement of relevant laws and regulations is effective (IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Mostly Effective
At the time of inscription, the WH Committee requested the State Party to ensure the effective long-term management and protection of the property and meet integrity requirements; to focus on the protection and effective management of the important biodiversity values; to support the organization of international meetings and to continue scientific research regarding the Danxia Landform; and to make available in translation key scientific studies on the topic of the China Danxia and to actively assist the further development of international scientific knowledge of the China Danxia phenomena and red-beds sandstone geomorphology more generally. The 1st International Symposium on Danxia Landform was convened in 2009, supported by the IUGS and IAG and several scientific institutions in China, intended to strengthen research and scientific collaboration on Danxia and similar landforms throughout the world (34COM.8B.1; Xiao Shizen et al., 2009). The 3rd International Symposium on Danxia Landform was convened in 2015 and showed new international development and achievements in the field of Danxia landform research (IUCN Consultation, 2011). Cooperation in the field of research was also established with the USA, some European countries and Australia (IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Sustainable use
Mostly Effective
Subsistence lifestyles and scientific uses are supported in and around the property (People’s Republic of China, 2008a). Since ancient times, bamboo has been an integral part of China’s natural landscape, a building block of civilisation, and a carrier of cultural imagination and creativity. Bamboo also sustains the outstanding biodiversity and cultural creativity at many World Heritage sites in China. At the China Danxia World Heritage site in Chishui, home to 87 thousand hectares of bamboo forest, the craft of bamboo carving and weaving are passed down for generations, playing deeply into the cultural identity and daily lives of the local residents. Bamboo’s natural and cultural versatility opens up possibilities in offering new and creative solutions in addressing the challenges that World Heritage sites in China often face, which is the conflict between conservation and development. UNESCO Beijing Office launched the World Heritage sustainable livelihood activity in 2017 in the project framework of “Conservation and Management of World Heritage Sites in China” (Phase III). The objective is to help local communities in and around World Heritage site develop eco-friendly and sustainable means of livelihood by leveraging intangible cultural heritage and creativity. At China Danxia World Heritage site in Chishui, one of the activity’s pilot sites, UNESCO Beijing Office cooperates with INBAR in encouraging creativity among bamboo artisans to add value to bamboo handicrafts, and in nurturing young talents as intangible cultural heritage transmitter and community leader. The hope is to help reshape local market for handicrafts and enhance the capacity for community development (BARC, 2018).  So far, the first batch of sustainable livelihood projects has been effective. More than 500 heritage residents have been directly involved in the project, among whom over 60% are women. In Guizhou, the Chishui bamboo weaving project has encouraged more women to improve their living conditions and realize their personal value through the training and incubation of community leaders (China Philanthropy Times, 2019).
Sustainable finance
Mostly Effective
Up to now, the funding for protection, management and development has been sufficient. All components of the World Heritage site are provided with adequate funds (State Party of China, 2010).
Staff capacity, training, and development
Mostly Effective
There are enough qualified staff employed at each of the sites in the property, and training opportunities are available (IUCN, 2010; People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b). World Natural Heritage management bodies from China and/or provinces provide the management staff of the world heritage sites with capacity building and training opportunities every year; some trainings are given by other relative bodies like UNESCO Beijing Office through special projects (Ma Aiping, 2018); and experts were invited to participate in working meetings of the China Danxia World Natural Heritage Protection Committee to give the staff trainings on different topics every year.
Education and interpretation programs
Highly Effective
Programs are in place and every component site has its own exhibition halls for education and interpretation. (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b). The 2nd of August of every year is celebrated as "China Danxia World Heritage Day", with all component sites holding "Heritage Week" promotional activities (IUCN Consultation, 2017). In recent years, the administrative committee of Mt. Danxiashan has organized and hosted science lectures in more than 50 universities, museums, and institutes on themes including redbeds and Danxia landform, the protection and sustainable development of ‘China Danxia’ world natural heritages at home and abroad. Be sides, nearly 10 lectures w ere finished along with teaching of related course. Through above mentioned activities, the knowledge on Danxia landform and protection of heritage has been quickly universalized. Besides, committee has put great emphasis on organizing popular science training camp for local people and young college students from all over China and East Asia. There is no doubt that the improvement of environmental conditions also prompted increased awareness of local farmers to maintain sustainable development for their own good. Young college students are more willing to share their knowledge on world nature heritage on popular social media such as wechat and weibo. In this sense, the protection of property can be viewed as effective and far sightedness Natural hazards and environment have been put under monitoring so that the short range threats to the property are at a low to very low level. However, gradually and potentially threat  (IUCN consultation, 2020).
Tourism and visitation management
Some Concern
Tourism management is guided by management plans and the State Party has introduced Guidelines for Determining the Maximum Capacity of Scenic Spots (LB/T034-2014) to strictly restrict the maximum capacity of tourist attractions. (lygh.hqu.edu.cn, 2016).. Some interpretation programs and methods could benefit from up-grading. However, it’s important to manage the growing pressure from tourism (People’s Republic of China, 2008b; Li Hangfei, 2016). Gradually and potentially threat from visitors is hard to perceive, the study of long range impact and forecasting of tourism on property should be encouraged and supported (if possible, maybe partially funded) by administrative organization (IUCN Consultation, 2020). 
Monitoring
Mostly Effective
Baseline condition assessment and monitoring of change for natural values and for species, as well as for geological disasters and air and water quality, have been established in key areas. Every component site has its own monitoring indicators and departments. (People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 2008b; UNEP/WCMC, 2012; State Party of China, 2010).  In order to deal with the reactive monitoring and stable on the heritage of the supervision, the monitoring system of Chishui Danxia Property of China Danxia World Natural Heritage was researched and established, including 6 monitoring elements, 31 monitoring modules, and more than 100 monitoring indicators, which roundly and systematically covers all aspects of the Chishui Danxia World Natural Heritage (Xiao Shizhen, et al, 2019).Monitoring Report of Langshan World Heritage of China Danxia were finished (Zhang Hui, 2019). 
Research
Highly Effective
There is a long history of national research in Danxia landscapes and active research programs are in place or planned. The property has a long history of cooperation with the National Danxia Landform Research Society and the Chinese Geographical Society-Red and Danxia Research Working Group. In recent years the property also received support from the International Association of Geographers (IAG), and signed a cooperation agreement to establish a research programme. In recent years research cooperation has also been ongoing with the St. Louis University, the University of Oxford, University of Tokyo and other foreign schools, with three doctoral thesis and a master's thesis completed on Danxia landforms. The University of Bergen in Slovakia and the University of Belgrade in Serbia also carry out scientific research on the property. Since the inscription of the property on the World Heritage List, more than 40 articles were published in international journals (for example, Luobin Yan, et al, 2019a, 2019b; Liuqin Chen et al, 2017, 2019; Hongying Li et al, 2018; Peng Hua et al, 2019; Fusheng Guo et al, 2018 and so on) and 50 master's thesis and doctoral thesis 8 were completed (IUCN Consultation, 2017; new data collection in 2020). However, whilst some of the research content on the components of China Danxia are abundant, while others have no literatures to prove (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Overall, the protection and management of the property can be assessed as mostly effective and there are no significant concerns. This is an extremely complex serial property comprising six components in six provinces scattered across some 1700 km of Southeast China. The effort made to provide uniformly effective legal, institutional and management mechanisms for protection of the Outstanding Universal Value throughout the property is highly commendable. On-going protection effort should give emphasis to managing the growing pressure from tourism, to the need to give greater international scientific exposure to China Danxia though collaborative research and wider publication, and to prepare an integrated management plan across the whole China Danxia World Heritage property.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Mostly Effective
On available evidence, there appears to be a relatively seamless transition between management inside and outside the property. All key stakeholders in the surrounding communities support the World Heritage status of the property.
Best practice examples
China government and local governments at all levels value greatly the protection management work of China Danxia. In addition to the protection and management of various heritage components, China Danxia as a serial world heritage has also set a good practice in collaborative management. As early as October 3, 2010, two months after the successful inscription of “China Danxia”, China Danxia World Heritage Application Office reported to the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China about the establishment of the“ China Danxia World Natural Heritage Protection Committee” (Dan Xia Shen Yi Ban Zi [2010] No. 11). The request is to establish the "China Danxia World Natural Heritage Protection Committee", which consists of the director, deputy directors, committee members and expert committees. The director of the committee was the leader from the Hunan Provincial Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. The deputy directors were leaders of the Housing and Urban-Rural Construction Department of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guizhou and Zhejiang provinces. The committee members consist of world natural heritage administration offices ofLangshan of Hunan, Danxiashan of Guangdong, Taining of Fujian, Longhushan of Jiangxi, Chishui of Guizhou, and Jianglangshan of Zhejiang provinces. Other domestic Danxia landform national scenic sites may voluntarily join the committee. On August 2nd, 2011, the Inaugural Meeting & the First Working Meeting of the China Danxia World Natural Heritage Professional Protection Committee hosted by the China Danxia Landform Application World Natural Heritage Coordination Leading Group and organized by the Taining National Scenic Area Management Committee at Taining, China Danxia World Natural Heritage Professional Protection Committee was formally established (Xiao Shizhen, 2018; Cai Xue, 2011). Under the leadership of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, the committee is responsible for the organization, coordination, technical guidance and progress supervision of the overall protection of China Danxia world natural heritage resources. The committee has offices and expert committees, and formulates rules of procedure, management system and rewards and punishments. It holds a plenary meeting every year to summarize and study the protection work. A meeting can be held for research and discussion at any time in case a major problem occurs. From 2010 to now, the China Danxia World Natural Heritage Protection Committee has held eight consecutive working meetings, and the main topics at each working meeting involve:the protection and utilization status, problems and suggestions of the China Danxia heritage sites since their inscription on the World Heritage List, the overall protection and management of the next stage of China Danxia world natural heritage, the work plan of China Danxia World Natural Heritage Protection Committee etc. In order to do a good job in the regular assessment of the World Natural Heritage, according to document 8B1 of the 34th session of the World Heritage Committee and the main contents of the World Natural Heritage Periodic Reporting, do a good job in the preparation of the periodic reporting on the China Danxia world natural heritage. China Danxia World Natural Heritage Professional Protection Committee also went to each heritage component to check and evaluate the protection and management work of China Danxia world heritage components. The establishment of the China Danxia World Natural Heritage Professional Protection Committee is of great significance for strengthening the protection management and scientific utilization of China Danxia world natural heritage values, promoting the overall development of China Danxia scenic region and the sustainable development of the local economy and society (Xiao Shizhen, 2018).
World Heritage values

An exceptionally beautiful landscape

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
The current state of the outstanding scenic and aesthetic values of the property is satisfactory and the trend is stable. All six component parts in the serial property have strong legal protection and active management sufficient to cope with existing environmental and human pressures. There is a need to be vigilant especially regarding the real prospect of a substantial increase in the numbers of visitors and growing tourism development, as well as rural development and associated increase in construction. Overuse of some scenic spots and excessive facilities development could cause localised physical damage and undesirable visual intrusion detrimental to the scenic quality of the beautiful natural landscape and to the degree of visitor satisfaction. Management must also give due attention to protection of the natural forest habitats (IUCN, 2010; People’s Republic of China, 2008a).

Oustanding geological features with great variety of distinctive landforms

Good
Trend
Stable
The current intact state of the outstanding geological and landform values of the property and the stable trend give little cause for concern. The six component parts of the property are all remotely located in mountainous terrain so are well buffered from areas of urban and industrial development. The geological values are inherently robust and resilient against agents of disturbance and change. These characteristics of remoteness and resilience provide for a strong degree of integrity for the serial property, despite its geographical discontinuity and complexity. Protection of the geological values of the property would be enhanced through greater international scientific exposure and wider promotion of the Danxia formation and landscapes. To date, the State Party has responded well to the recommendations of the Committee and IUCN in this regard (IUCN, 2010; People’s Republic of China, 2008a; 34COM.8B.1; Xiao Shizhen et al., 2009). Outstanding geological features of the property remain well preserved (IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Good
Trend
Stable
The current state of the outstanding scenic and aesthetic and geological values of the property is satisfactory and the trend is stable. Remoteness of the property from urban and industrial development and the inherently robust character of the geological landscape combine to provide for a strong degree of integrity for the serial property despite its geographical discontinuity and complexity. All six sites in the property have strong legal protection and active management sufficient to cope with existing and foreseen environmental and human pressures. There is a need for vigilance in the face of the real prospect of substantially increased tourism development and pressures for rural development and construction. Management must also give due attention to protection of the natural forest habitats that add significantly to the overall visual and aesthetic values of the property and are vital to maintain the on-going natural geomorphological processes. Protection of the geological values of the property would be enhanced through greater international scientific exposure of the Danxia formation and landscapes, as well as development of geological monitoring indicators.
Assessment of the current state and trend of other important biodiversity values
Low Concern
Trend
Stable
Although inscribed for its outstanding scenic and geological values, the China Danxia property also has biodiversity values which are of national and regional significance. These values should be well protected within the context of World Heritage protection for the property, but elements of flora and fauna are readily lost and difficult to restore so more effective on-going management intervention is required.

Additional information

Direct employment
Many people from the local communities in and around the property are employed for administrative and management duties and as guides, from which they derive significant cash income which contributes to up-grading their social and economic well-being.
Legal subsistence hunting of wild game,
Fishing areas and conservation of fish stocks,
Traditional agriculture
Subsistence activities such as farming, fishing and firewood collection are permitted by regulation, and traditional customs and religious beliefs are respected and maintained. There is some threat from modernization.
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Climate change
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Pollution
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Decreasing
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Trend - Decreasing
Invasive species
Impact level - Low
Trend - Decreasing
Habitat change
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Increasing
Chines Government has been attaching more and more great attention to the protection and management of ecological environment, protected areas including world natural heritage properties.
Outdoor recreation and tourism
Commercial tourism operations are growing modestly but steadily throughout the property and the associated economic opportunities are of great benefit to residents both in the property and the buffer zone. It is important that the level of development is maintained within the physical and social carrying capacity of the property and that the excesses of mass tourism are avoided.
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Overexploitation
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Increasing
Habitat change
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Increasing
Soil stabilisation,
Water provision (importance for water quantity and quality)
The protection of the property is highly significant for control of soil erosion, land stability, forest conservation and the maintenance of water quality.
Importance for research
Danxia geology is nationally renowned in China based on long-established research. China has a major role to play in making this information available to the wider international scientific community.
The China Danxia property makes a major contribution to maintaining the traditional lifestyles, customs and beliefs of the local communities and to enhancing their socio-economic standing through employment opportunities and income generation either directly in the property or indirectly, through commercial tourism operations in particular.
Organization Brief description of Active Projects Website
1 Beijing Office of UNESCO, Chishui Bureau of Management of China Danxia World Natural Heritage UNESCO Beijing Office launched the World Heritage sustainable livelihood activity in 2017 in the project framework of “Conservation and Management of World Heritage Sites in China” (Phase III). The objective is to help local communities in and around World Heritage site develop eco-friendly and sustainable means of livelihood by leveraging intangible cultural heritage and creativity. At China Danxia World Heritage site in Chishui, one of the activity’s pilot site, UNESCO Beijing Office cooperates with INBAR in encouraging creativity among bamboo artisans to add value to bamboo handicrafts, and in nurturing young talents as intangible cultural heritage transmitter and community leader. The hope is to help reshape local market for handicrafts and enhance the capacity for community development.
http://www.zylzh.com/zuixinzixun/2018/0629/771.html,&nbsp;http://english.radi.cas.cn/News/NU/201705/t20170503_176629.html,&nbsp;http://www.gongyishibao.com/html/gongyizixun/17762.html

References

References
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