Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay – Mukkawar Island Marine National Park
The property consists of two separate areas: Sanganeb is an isolated, coral reef structure in the central Red Sea and the only atoll, 25 km off the shoreline of Sudan. The second component of the property is made up of Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island, situated 125 km north of Port Sudan. It includes a highly diverse system of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, beaches and islets. The site provides a habitat for populations of seabirds, marine mammals, fish, sharks, turtles and manta rays. Dungonab Bay also has a globally significant population of dugongs. © UNESCO
2020 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
An outstanding example of the northernmost tropical coral reef systems on earth
Exceptional level of Biodiversity
Impressive natural phenomena, formations and areas of great natural beauty
|№||Organization||Brief description of Active Projects||Website|
|1||University of the Red Sea||Various projects monitoring endangered species and conducting species surveys.|
|2||PERSGA||PERSGA implemented a GEF funded Marine Protected Areas Strategic Action Programme (MPA-SAP) that supported various regional studies and surveys in Sudan that resulted in the designation of DMNP in 2004. More recently PERSGA implemented the “Strategic Ecosystem based Management” (SEM) project. The SEM project supported a legal review and the preparation of an updated management plan for Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island National Park under the SEM project (Klaus 2016), followed by the preparation on an integrated management plan (Klaus 2017) for the World Heritage site as requested by the WCGA. PERSGA support training, monitoring and many other activities within the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region.||
|3||Cousteau Society||UK-Aid funded Darwin Initiative project 21-019 entitled "Strengthening marine protected areas and marine ecotourism benefits in Sudan".||
|4||UNIDO in partnership with Institute of Marine Research, Norway||"Surveys of renewable marine resources in the Red Sea State” implemented in the period from 2012 to 2013||
Adam, B.E.K.A. (2013). Current Status and Distribution of Dugongs (Dugong dugon) in Sudan. Presentation and Abstract. RIHN 8th International Symposium “Risk Societies, Edge Environments: Ecosystems and Livelihoods in the Balance” October 23 - 25, 2013 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/rihn_e/events/2013/131023-25abstrac…
African Parks Foundation (2006). Survey Report: Sudan Marine Parks Expedition (2006). Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island National Park and Sanganab Atoll Marine National Park. African Parks Foundation, Netherlands, 2 vols. (121 p. and 116p.).
Ali, A.A.M., Mahmoud, Z.N.E. and Elamin,S.E.M. (2015). Nesting, Hatchling Breeding and Feeding of Osprey Pandion haliaetus in Um El Sheikh Island, Dongonab Bay, Sudan. Adv. Environ. Biol., 9(5), 226-228, 2015
Cousteau (2013). Toward a sustainable future for the Red Sea coast of Sudan: Part 1. Coastal and marine habitats Survey. Editors T. Chekchak and R. Klaus. Cousteau Society, Custodians of the Sea, New York 4 East 27th Street PO Box 20321 New York NY 10001.
Cousteau (2014). Toward a sustainable future for the Red Sea coast of Sudan: Part 2. Socio-economic and Governance Survey. Editors T. Chekchak and M. Macfarlane. Cousteau Society, Custodians of the Sea, New York 4 East 27th Street PO Box 20321 New York NY 10001.
Cousteau (2016). Strengthening marine protected areas and marine ecotourism benefits in Sudan. Editors T. Chekchak and R. Klaus. Report to the Darwin Initiative.
Elanaeim, S.M.E. (2012). Stock Assessment and Population Dynamics of Plectropomus pessuliferus and Plectropomus areolatus in the Sudanese Red Sea Coast. PhD Thesis. University Malaysia.
Elhassan, I.S. (2018). Occurrence of the green sawfish Pristis zijsron in the Sudanese Red Sea with observations on reproduction. Endangered Species Research, 36, pp.41-47.
Heron, S.F., van Hooidonk,R., Maynard, J., Anderson, K., Day, J.C., Geiger, E., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Hughes, T., Marshall, P., Obura, D., and Eakinet, C.M. (2018). Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Coral Reefs: Update to the First Global Scientific Assessment. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris.
Hussey, N., Stroh, N., Klaus, R., Chekchak, T., and Kessel, S. (2011). SCUBA diver observations and placard tags to monitor grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Sha’ab Rumi, The Sudan: assessment and future directions. Journal of the Marine Biological Association. 1-10.
IUCN (2014). Evaluation Report for Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay / Mukkawar Island Marine National Park (Sudan - Red Sea). IUCN Gland, Switzerland.
Kattan A, Coker DJ, Berumen ML. (2017) Reef fish communities in the central Red Sea show evidence of asymmetrical fishing pressure. Mar Biodiv. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2017;6: 1–12. doi:10.1007/s12526-017-0665-8
Kessel, S.T., Elamin, N.A., Yurkowski, D.J., Chekchak, T., Walter, R.P., Klaus, R., Hill, G. and Hussey, N.E. (2017). Conservation of reef manta rays (Manta alfredi) in a UNESCO World Heritage Site: Large-scale island development or sustainable tourism?. PloS one, 12(10), p.e0185419.
Klaus, R. (2017). Integrated Management Plan for the UNESCO World Heritage Site for Dungonab Bay and Mukkowar Island and Sanganeb Atoll Marine National Park, Sudan (2017-2021). Volume I Current Conditions, and Volume II Operations Manual. Prepared under the World Bank GEF funded Strategic Ecosystem Management (SEM) for the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Project.
Klaus, R. (2018) Updating the Map for the Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay - Mukkawar Island Marine National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site. Report to Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage (ARC-WH) under the auspices of UNESCO 62p.
Mergner H., and Schumacher, H. (1985). Quantitative Alalyse von Korallengemeinschaften des Sanganeb Atolls (mittleres Rotes Meer) I. Die Besiedslungs-Struktur hydrodynamisch unterschiedlich exponierter Auben-und Innenriffe. Helgolander Wisenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 26: 238-358.
Olsen, E., Axelsen, B.E., Moland, E., Utne-Palm, A.C., Elamin, E.M., Mukhtar, M.A., Saleh, A.M., Elamin, S.M., Iragi, M.A. and Gumaa, S.G.F. (pre-print) Distribution and diversity of fish species exposed to artisanal fishery along the Sudanese Red Sea coast. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/763961
PERSGA (2002). The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Regional Network of Marine Protected Areas Regional Master Plan. PERSGA Technical Report Series No. 1. Jeddah.
PERSGA (2003a). Status report of marine turtles in Sudan. PERSGA, Jeddah. The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). PERSGA Technical Series.
PERSGA (2003b). Status of Breeding Seabirds in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). PERSGA Technical Series No. 8.
PERSGA (2003c). Survey of the Proposed Marine Protected Area at Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island, Sudan, The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). PERSGA Technical Series
PERSGA (2004). Dungonab Bay–Makkawar Island Proposed Marine Protected Area Site-Specific Master Plan with Management Guidelines. PERSGA Jeddah.
Reinicke, G.B., Kroll, S.D.K., Schumacher, H. (2003). Patterns and changes of reef-coral communities at the Sanganeb-Atoll (Sudan, Central Red Sea): 1980 to 1991. Facies 49:271–298
State Party of Sudan (2013). Nomination of Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay/Mukkawar Island Marine National Park (Sudan - Red Sea).
State Party of Sudan. (2018). Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of the Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay - Mukkawar Island Marine National Park (Sudan). [online] Ministry of Tourism, Antiquity and Wildlife, and Sudanese MAB National Committee/ Sudanese National Commission for UNESCO (NATCOM). Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/262/documents/ (Accessed 22 October 2019).
UNESCO. (2018). Report on the State of Conservation of Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay - Mukkawar Island Marine National Park, Sudan. State of Conservation Information System of the World Heritage Centre. [online] Paris, France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/3683 (Accessed 22 October 2019).
World Heritage Committee (2016). Decision: 40 COM 8B.6 Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay / Mukkawar Island Marine National Park Provisional Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (Sudan). Istanbul, Turkey. Accessed 1st April 2017.