Kaziranga National Park
In the heart of Assam, this park is one of the last areas in eastern India undisturbed by a human presence. It is inhabited by the world's largest population of one-horned rhinoceroses, as well as many mammals, including tigers, elephants, panthers and bears, and thousands of birds.
2020 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Ecological processes in development of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems
Significant natural habitat
Rare and endemic mammals
Rare and endemic birds
Severe losses to wildlife have been sustained during heavy floods in recent years. The monsoon flooding of 2004 was said to be the worst for 50 years, with widespread loss of animals (UNEP-WCMC, 2011). During the floods in 2017, around 104 animals (95 hog deer, 7 rhinos and 2 elephants) were handled by the Centre for Wildlife Rehabilitation and Conservation (CWRC), run by the Assam Forest Department and IFAW-WTI, of which 80 were released back into the wild. Kaziranga National Park lost more than 360 animals in two waves of floods in 2017, including 31 rhinos (Vyawahare, 2018). Between 2002 and 2017, 130 rhinos have died in floods in Kaziranga.
These floods are likely to increase in intensity and potentially frequency under climate change. In 2019, the State Government decided to construct 33 new highlands to provide areas for animals to seek refuge during the floods (Karmakar, 2019).
The site is home to a number of local communities, many of whom have inhabited the area for many generations. These communities were present prior to the designation of the National Park and World Heritage site with strong connections to the habitat and the species found in the Park.
|№||Organization||Brief description of Active Projects||Website|
|1||Aaranyak, Guwahati, Assam||Tiger Research and Conservation Initiative; Rhino Research and Conservation Initiative; Education||
|2||National Tiger Conservation Authority of India, New Delhi and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun||Status of the Tigers, Co-predators, and Prey in India|
|3||Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat, Assam||Ecology of Mimosa Invasion|
|4||Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, Guwahati, Assam||UNESCO World Heritage Biodiversity Programme for India (capacity building, community development, research, outreach)|
|5||WWF India||The Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Landscape is a critical region for work of WWF India. Specific areas of support include: Tiger monitoring; Wildlife corridor monitoring; Human-Wildlife Conflict; Support to anti-poaching efforts for rhinos and other high value species||
|6||Wildlife Trust of India, Assam||Swamp Deer Recovery Project; Centre for Wildlife Rehabilitation and Conservation (CWRC, in collaboration with IFAW and Assam Forest Department); Forest guard training and assurance policy project; National Elephant Corridor Project.|
Barbora, S. (2017). Riding the rhino: conservation, conflicts, and militarisation of Kaziranga National Park in Assam. Antipode, 49(5), pp.1145-1163.
Borah, J., Bora, P.J., Sharma, A., Dey, S., Sarmah, A., Vasu, N.K. and Sidhu, N. (2018). Livestock Depredation by Bengal Tigers at Fringe Areas of Kaziranga Tiger Reserve, Assam, India: Implications for Large Carnivore Conservation. Human–Wildlife Interactions, 12(2), p.5.
Business Standard. (2019). ‘Supreme court bans mining in Kaziranga National Park’, Business Standrad, New Delhi, 12 April. Available at: https://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/supreme… (Accessed 4 June 2019)
Das, D. (2017). Park, People and Biodiversity Conservation in Kaziranga National Park, India. Space and Culture, India, 5(1), pp.36-48.
Gogoi, M. (2015). Kaziranga under threat: Biodiversity loss and encroachment of forest land. Economic and Political Weekly, 50(28). Available at:. http://www.epw.in/node/145521/pdf
Government of India (2015). Report of the Rhino Task Force submitted to National Tiger Conservation Authority.
IUCN (1985). World Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation, Kaziranga National Park (India). In: IUCN World Heritage Evaluations 1985, IUCN Evaluations of nominations of natural and mixed properties to the World Heritage List. SC-85/CONF.008/9. [online] Paris, France. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/document/153222.
IUCN Consultation (2017). IUCN Confidential Consultation - Kaziranga National Park, India.
IUCN Consultation (2020). IUCN Confidential Consultation - Kaziranga National Park, India.
Karmakar, S. (2019). ‘Assam’s Kaziranga National Park prepares for floods’, Deccan Herald, Bengaluru, 12 May. Available at: https://www.deccanherald.com/national/east-and-northeast/as… (Accessed 4 June 2019).
MOEF (2010), Encroachment in national parks and sanctuaries. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Available at: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=64987
Ranjan R. (2019). Shooting at the poachers while the rhinos drown: Managing short‐and long‐term threats to endangered wildlife in conservation reserves. Natural Resource Modeling, 32(1), pp. e12188.
Smadja, J. (2018). A Chronicle of Law Implementation in Environmental Conflicts: The Case of Kaziranga National Park in Assam (North-East India). South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, (17).
State Party of India (1985). Nomination of Kaziranga National Park as a World Heritage Site. New Delhi, India.
State Party of India (2008). Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Kaziranga National Park (India). [online] Government of India. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/814
State Party of India (2009). Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Kaziranga National Park (India). [online] Government of India. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/738
State Party of India (2011). Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Kaziranga National Park (India). [online] Government of India. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/319
UNEP-WCMC (2011). Kaziranga National Park, India. UNEP-WCMC World Heritage Information Sheets. [online] Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC. Available at: http://world-heritage-datasheets.unep wcmc.org/datasheet/output/site/kaziranga-national-park/.
Vyawahare, M. (2018). ‘Kaziranga lost 31 rhinos and 361 animals drown in 2017 floods’, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, 1 January. Available at: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/kaziranga-lost-31… animals-drown-in-2017-floods/story-FmNA4GuQ2PAyFdcuvqOOAM.html (Accessed 4 June 2019).
World Heritage Committee (2008). Decision 32 COM 7B.12. Kaziranga National Park (India). In: Report of decisions of the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee (Quebec City, 2008). [online] Paris, France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/archive/2008/whc08-32com-7Be.pdf
World Heritage Committee (2011). Decision 35 COM 7B.13. Kaziranga National Park (India). In: State of conservation of World Heritage properties inscribed on the World Heritage List (Paris, 2011). [online] Paris, France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/35COM/documents/
World Heritage Committee (2015). Decision: 39 COM 8E Kaziranga National Park Adoption of Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (India). In: Decisions Adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 39th Session (Bonn, 2015). [online] Paris, France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: <http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6407> [Accessed November 2020].