Sinharaja Forest Reserve
Located in south-west Sri Lanka, Sinharaja is the country's last viable area of primary tropical rainforest. More than 60% of the trees are endemic and many of them are considered rare. There is much endemic wildlife, especially birds, but the reserve is also home to over 50% of Sri Lanka's endemic species of mammals and butterflies, as well as many kinds of insects, reptiles and rare amphibians.
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Rare, threatened and endemic invertebrate species
Rare, threatened and endemic mammals
Rare, threatened and endemic birds
Rare, threatened and endemic reptiles
Rare, threatened and endemic freshwater fish
Rare and endemic trees
Rare and endemic Orchids
Rare, threatened and endemic amphibians
The largest and relatively undisturbed remnant of Sri Lanka’s tropical lowland rain forest
|№||Organization/ individuals||Project duration||Brief description of Active Projects|
|1||Herpetological Foundation of Sri Lanka (HFS)||Research on new species of amphibians and reptiles in Sinharaja WHS|
|2||Center for Applied Biodiversity Research and Education (CABRE)||Research on orchids in Sinharaja|
|3||Ceylon Bird Club (CBC)||Annual monitoring of avifauna in Sinharaja, including|
|4||Field Ornithology Group (FOG)||Mixed-species foraging bird flocks in Sinharaja|
|5||Madhava Meegaskumbura||Monitoring of amphibians in Eastern Sinharaja, Morningside (long-term study)|
|6||Savitri Gunatilleke and Nimal Gunatilleke||Restoration of forest in buffer zones (long-term study initiated in 1990) and Sinharaja Forest Dynamics Plot for monitoring changes in plant diversity over time.|
|№||Site need title||Brief description of potential site needs||Support needed for following years|
|1||N.A.||A systematic study on the species richness, distribution, and ecology of freshwater fishes in Sinharaja|
|2||N.A.||A comprehensive study on ecosystem services related to Sinharaja, including production, regulating, supporting and cultural services.|
|3||N.A.||Impact of climate change and extreme weather events on the ecology and endemic species in Sinharaja need to be studied|
|4||N.A.||Study the impact of invasive alien flora and fauna on the ecology of Sinharaja|
|5||N.A.||Conservation education projects for preparation of information material, upgrading the existing education centers and establishing new ones on other key locations.|
Ashton et al. (2014). Restoration of rain forest beneath pine plantations: a relay floristic model with special application to tropical South Asia. Forest Ecology and Management 329:351-359.
Ashton et al. (2014). Use and cultivation of plants that yield products other than timber from South Asian tropical forests, and their potential in forest restoration. Forest Ecology and Management 329.
Bambaradeniya, C. N. B., Ekanayake, S. P. and Amarasinghe, S. (2006). Guide to Sinharaja: A Biodiversity Hotspot of the World. The World Conservation Union in Sri Lanka vi + 55pp.
Bambaradeniya, C.N.B., M.S.J. Perera, W.P.N. Perera, L.J.M. Wickramasinghe, L.D.C.B. Kekulandala, V.A.P. Samarawickrema, R.H.S.S. Fernando and V.A.M.P.K. Samarawickrema (2003). Composition of faunal species in the Sinharaja World Heritage Site in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lanka Forester, 26: 21-40.
Chamikara, S (2013). A request to integrate adjoining forests into the Sinharaja World Heritage Site. Unpublished article submitted to the Forest Department and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources in Sri Lanka, by Environmental Conservation Trust of Sri Lanka (written in Sinhala language).
ESCAMP (WB Project ID: P156021) http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/loans-credits/2016/04/25/s…
Gooddale et al. (2014). The response of birds and mixed-species bird flocks to human-modified landscapes in Sri Lanka and southern India Forest Ecology and Management 329:384-392
Gunatilleke, C.V.S. and Gunatilleke I.A.U.N, (1980). The floristic Composition of Sinharaja – A Rain forest in Sri Lanka with special reference to Endemics. The Sri Lanka Forester, XIV (3 & 4): 171-179.
Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., & Ashton, P.M.S. (1995). Rain forest research and conservation: the Sinharaja experience in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Forester, XXII (1 & 2): 49-60
Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., & Ashton, P.M.S., Ethugala, A,U.K. Esufali, S. (2004). Ecology of Sinharaja and the Forest Dynamics Plot in Sri Lanka’s Natural World Heritage Site. WHT Publications (PVT) Ltd, Colombo. 221 pp.
Gunatilleke, N (2011). Green gold rush in the 21st Century: A potential threat to Sinharaja World Heritage Site. Newspaper article published in The Island, September20, 2011.
Gunawardene, N.R., Majer, J.D., Edirisinghe, J.P. (2010). Investigating residual effects of selective logging on ant species assemblages in Sinharaja Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. Forest Ecology and Management, 259: 555-562.
Gunawardene, N.R., Majer, J.D., Edirisinghe, J.P. (2012). Correlates of ant (Hymnoptera: Formicidae) and tree species diversity in Sri Lanka. Myrmecological News, 17: 81-90.
MMD&E.(2015), Invasive Alien Species in Sri Lanka: Training Manual for Managers and Policy Makers.
Meegaskumbura, S., Meegaskumbura, Gunatilleke, N., M., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Bowatte, G., Gunathilake, T., and Bandara, C. 2012. Conservation and Biogeography of amphibians in eastern Sinharaja. FrogLog, 100: 12-14.
Meegaskumbura, S., Meegaskumbura, M., Pethiyagoda, R., Manamendra-Arachchi, K. and Schneider, C. J. 2007. Crocidura hikmiya, a new shrew (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 1665: 19-30.
NRIFAP 2017 - REDD+ SL (2017). http://infosl.online/reddlk/web/images/contents/document_ce…
Ng, P.K.L. (1995). Ceylonthelphusa scansor, a new species of tree-climbing crab from Sinharaja forest in Sri Lanka (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae). J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 1 ;175-184
Rajeev, M.D.G., and Vidanapathirana, D.R. (2012). Environmental Report on Conservation of Highly Diverse Forest Areas Adjacent to Sinharaja World Heritage Forest Reserve. Unpublished report submitted to Hon. Minister of Environment and Natural Resources in Sri Lanka, by Herpetological Foundation of Sri Lanka.
Ranil, R.H.G., Pushpakumara, D.K.N.G, Janssen, T., .Wijesundera, D.S.A., Dhanasekera, D.U.M.B. 2010. Cyathea srilankensis (Cyatheaceae): a new tree fern Species from Sri Lanka. American Fern Journal, 100(1): 39-44.
Ranil, R.H.G., Pushpakumara, D.K.N.G., Suriyagoda., B.M., Sivanathaweri, T., Samitha, S. (2007). Biodiversity of Pteridophytes at Moulawella mountain of Sinharaja forest. Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium, Sri Lanka. Published by Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Report of the Committee Appointed to Advise the Hon. Minister of Environment on the Proposed Road through the Forest from Illumbakanda to Sooriyakanda with a Potential Threat to Sinharaja Natural World Heritage Site (Sinharaja NWHS)
Surasinghe, T. Conservation overview of herpetofauna of Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Reserve of Sri Lanka. Zoo’s Print Journal, 22(1):2535-2538
Van der Poorten, N. 2009. Lyriothemis defonsekai Spec.nov. Sri Lanka with a review of the known species in the Genus (Anisoptera, Libellulidae). Odonatologica, 38(1):15-27.
Warakagoda, D. H.; Rasmussen, P. C. 2004. A new species of scops-owl from Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 85-105.
Wijesinghe, M. R. and de Brooke, M. L. 2005. Impact of habitat disturbance on the distribution of endemic species of small mammals and birds in a tropical rain forest in Sri Lanka. Journal of Tropical Ecology 21(6): 661-668.
de Silva Wijeyeratne, G. (2009). The Sinharaja Bird Wave. Hi Magazine. May 2009. Series 7, Volume 2. Page 146-147. ISSN 1800-0711