Ibiza: Biodiversity and Culture
Ibiza provides an excellent example of the interaction between the marine and coastal ecosystems. The dense prairies of oceanic Posidonia (seagrass), an important endemic species found only in the Mediterranean basin, contain and support a diversity of marine life. Ibiza preserves considerable evidence of its long history. The archaeological sites at Sa Caleta (settlement) and Puig des Molins (necropolis) testify to the important role played by the island in the Mediterranean economy in protohistory, particularly during the Phoenician-Carthaginian period. The fortified Upper Town (Alta Vila) is an outstanding example of Renaissance military architecture; it had a profound influence on the development of fortifications in the Spanish settlements of the New World. © UNESCO
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Marine ecosystems sustained by Posidonia oceanica
Coastal (including lagoon) and small island ecosystems
Diversity of coastal and terrestrial flora
Diversity of coastal and terrestrial fauna
Regarding the threats of submarine oil seismic exploration and drilling, in 2014 a joint campaign of local governments of the Balearic islands and private sector and NGOs succeeded in stopping the threat of a seismic exploration project, promoted by Cairn Energy, at about 50 km from the site. At this moment there is a project of seismic exploration promoted by Spectrum, which has been opposed by the local governments in the environmental impact assessment procedure. Given that the authorisation is in the hand of the Spanish government, there remain some uncertainties about the outcome.
|№||Organization/ individuals||Project duration||Brief description of Active Projects|
|1||Mediterranean Institute of Advanced Studies||Various research projects related to marine conservation, seagrass ecosystem ecology and global change.|
|2||GEN-GOB Eivissa||Various projects on ecological education and campaigning on Ibiza|
|3||Oceana Europe||Campaign to enforce the preservation and conservation of posidonia meadows in Ibiza and Formentera|
|№||Site need title||Brief description of potential site needs||Support needed for following years|
|1||n.a.||A monitoring program on posidonia meadows needs to be developed in order to assess anchoring and sewage impacts and thus implement appropriate measures.|
|2||n.a.||Extension of the property (see WHC, 2011).|
|3||n.a.||Establishment of an integrated monitoring system for the property that particularly focuses on key threats to the integrity of its OUV (see WHC, 2011).|
|4||n.a.||Upgrade of the sewage treatment plants of Ibiza and Platja d’en Bossa (see WHC, 2011).|
|5||n.a.||Finalization, approval and effective implementation of an integrated management plan for the property (see WHC, 2011).|
|6||n.a.||Reestablishment /extension of seagrass friendly anchoring devices in appropriate zones of the property, accompanied by upgrade of communication and enforcement activities aimed at boat/yacht owners.|
|7||n.a.||Establishment of an effective control mechanism against damage to seagrass meadows by anchoring and sewage release of recreational boats and yachts (see WHC, 2011).|
Agència de Turisme Illes Balears (2016)
Arnaud-Haond, S., Duarte, C. M., Díaz-Almela, E., Marbà, M., Sintes, T., Serrão, E. A. (2012). Implication of extreme life span in clonal organisms: millenary clones in meadows of the threatened seagrass Posidonia oceanica. PLoS ONE. DOI: 0030454.
Ballesteros, E. and Cebrian, E. (2004). Estudi sobre la bionomia bentònica, biodiversitat i cartografia de la reserva dels Freus entre Formentera i Eivissa. Informe Final – I. Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes.
BirdLife International (2012a). ‘Datazone: Factsheet Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
BirdLife International (2012b). ‘Datazone: Endemic Bird Area Search’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012
Boletín Oficial de las Islas Baleares number 131.
Cebrian, E. and Ballesteros, E. (2010). ‘Invasion of Mediterranean benthic assemblages by red alga Lophocladia lallemandii (Montagne) F. Schmitz: Depth-related temporal variability in biomass and phenology’. Aquatic Botany 92(2): 81-85.
Chessa, L.A., Fustier V., Fernandez, C., Mura, F., Pais, A., Pergent, G., Serra, S. and Vitale, L. (2000). Contribution to the knowledge of “banquettes” of Posidonia oceánica (L.) Delile in Sardinian island. Biol. Mar. Medit. T(2):35-38.
Conservation International (2012). ‘The Biodiversity Hotspots: Mediterranean Basin’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
Convalia, C. (2011).
Convalia, C. (2011). ‘Experts of IMEDEA contradict government data about seagrass’. El Diario de Ibiza, 28 September 2011. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012. (in Spanish)
Duarte, C.M. (2000). Marine biodiversity and ecosystem services: an elusive link. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250: 117–131.
Fourqurean, J. W., Duarte, C.M., Kennedy, H. et al. (2012). Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock. Nature Geoscience 5(7): 505-509.
Government of the Balearic Islands (2007). ‘Status of seagrass map: Ses Salines d'Eivissa i Formentera’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
IUCN (1999). ‘World Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation: Ibiza: Biodiversity and Culture, Balearic islands, Spain’ ‘. Gland: IUCN. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
IUCN (2011). ’37. Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture (Spain) (C/N 417rev)’. State of Conservation Report. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
IUCN (2012). ‘The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
MacCord F., Mateo, M.A. (2010). Estimating the size of the carbon sink represented by Posidonia oceanica meadows along the coasts of the Balearic Island. Proyecto final de investigación, Master en Cambio Global, UIMP-CSIC, Spain : 35 p.
Marba, N. and Duarte C. M. (2010). ‘Mediterranean warming triggers seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) shoot mortality’. Global Change Biology 16(8): 2366-2375.
Ministry of the Environment, Rural Issues and the Seas (2011). ‘National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of Spain 2011-2017’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012. (in Spanish)
Méndez, R. (2012). ‘A Law of the Coasts a la carte’. El País, 14 July 2012. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012. (in Spanish)
Natural Parc Ses Salines d’Eivissa i Formentera. http://www.caib.es/sites/espaisnaturalsprotegits/ca/parc_na… (last accessed 30 January 2017)
Parc Natural de ses Salines d’Eivissa i Formentera (2011). ‘Annual Management Report 2010’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012. (in Catalan)
Pergent, G., Bazairi, H., Bianchi, C.N., Boudouresque, C.F., Buia, M.C., Clabaut, P., Harmelin-Vivien, M., Mateo, M.A., Montefalcone, M., Morri, C., Orfanidis, S., Pergent-Martini, C., Semroud, R., Serrano, O. and Verlaque, M. (2012). Mediterranean Seagrass Meadows : Resilience and Contribution to Climate Change Mitigation, A Short Summary. Gland, Suiza y Málaga, España: IUCN. 40 pages.
Piazzi, L., Ceccherelli, G. and Cinelli, F. (2001). ‘Threat to macroalgal diversity: Effects of the introduced green alga Caulerpa racemosa in the Mediterranean’. Marine Ecology Progress Series 210: 149-159.
Plan Territorial Insular de Ibiza.
PlantLife (2012). IPA online database. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
Reñones, O., Massuti, E., Moranta, J. et al. (1995). ‘Fish fauna of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows in Palma Bay (Balearic Islands)’. Cybium 19(2):201-206.
Rössler, M., Niksic, G., Pergent Martini, C. (2009). ‘Mission report: Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture (Spain) (417rev)’. Gland, Switzerland and Paris: IUCN and UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
UNEP-WCMC (2011). ‘Ibiza: Biodiversity and Culture, Balearic islands, Spain’. UNEP-WCMC World Heritage Information Sheets. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
WWF (2012). ‘List of Priority Global 200 Ecoregions: Mediterranean Sea’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
Wetlands International (2012). ‘Ramsar Sites Information Service’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
World Heritage Commission (2009). ‘Decision 33 COM 7B.41’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
World Heritage Commission (2010). ‘Decision 34 COM 7B.41’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.
World Heritage Commission (2011). ‘Decision 35 COM 7B.37’. [Electronic reference] . Accessed 7 August 2012.