Everglades National Park
This site at the southern tip of Florida has been called 'a river of grass flowing imperceptibly from the hinterland into the sea'. The exceptional variety of its water habitats has made it a sanctuary for a large number of birds and reptiles, as well as for threatened species such as the manatee.
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Large, flat, low-lying landscape
One of the most active areas of modern carbonate sedimentation
Diverse array of habitats
Biodiversity sustained through trophic interactions
A uniquely diverse combination of species from different biogeographic realms
Threatened, endangered and endemic species
Essential wading bird habitat
|№||Organization/ individuals||Project duration||Brief description of Active Projects|
|1||National Park Service (NPS)||GENERAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (GMP): The Everglades National Park General Management Plan was completed in 2015. New elements include pilot boating zones within the park (called pole and troll zones); and intensive work to re-establish freshwater flow through infrastructure barriers on NPS lands (culvert projects on Old Ingraham Hwy and Research Road). In addition, the GMP contemplates adaptation of park infrastructure and resource management in the face of climate change.|
|2||NPS and the South Florida National Parks Trust||FLORIDA BAY: SEAGRASS RESTORATION PROJECTS. Work to restore areas of seagrass habitat damaged by boaters. This work is ongoing; the intent of zoning through the GMP is to reduce the pressure on seagrass habitat and allow substantial restoration of this resource.|
|3||US Army Corps of Engineers, US National Park Service||MODIFIED WATER DELIVERIES TO EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK PROJECT AND THE TAMIAMI TRAIL NEXT STEPS PROJECT – Restoration of water flows to the northeastern portion of ENP that was cut-off from natural marsh flow in the 1960s.|
|4||South Florida Water Management District, US National Park Service||EVERGLADES CONSTRUCTION PROJECT AND THE RESTORATION STRATEGIES PROJECT – Construction/expansion of man-made wetlands (stormwater treatment areas) and shallow reservoirs (flow equalisation basins) to reduce nutrient loadings and improve water flows into the Everglades.|
|5||US Army Corps of Engineers, US National Park Service||CANAL-111 SOUTH DADE AND THE C-111 SPREADER CANAL PROJECTS – Restoration of marsh water depths in the Taylor Slough region of ENP through the construction of water detention areas.|
|6||US Army Corps of Engineers South Florida Water Management District||CENTRAL EVERGLADES PLANNING PROJECT – Long-term planning to restore more natural water flows from Lake Okeechobee into the central and southern Everglades, as part of the USD 10.5 billion + Restoration Plan (CERP).|
|7||NPS Everglades National Park and NPS Southeast Regional Office||EXOTIC PLANT MANAGEMENT: work to remove exotic plant species from Everglades National Park lands, throughout all habitats. Funding principally from NPS. Additional work is ongoing with outside funding (see below).|
|8||NPS Everglades National Park, in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as the permitting entity||HOLE IN THE DONUT PROJECT: in-lieu-fee programme oriented toward restoration of approximately 6,000 acres of abandoned agricultural land within Everglades National Park. Funding from the in-lieu-fee programme, which works in a manner similar to a ‘mitigation bank’.|
|9||Carol Mitchell, firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.nps.gov/ever/naturescience/hidprogram.htm||EXOTIC ANIMAL MANAGEMENT: work to understand and eventually control/manage the impact of exotic animal species on Everglades National Park resources. Additional work is needed (see below).|
|10||NPS. Work completed from 2008 – 2011 plugged 2 major canals, using seed money from the USFWS Coastal Program, and major funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act; work to monitor the ecological effects is ongoing.||CAPE SABLE CANALS DAM RESTORATION PROJECT: Work to plug man-made canals and ditches in the Cape Sable region of Everglades National Park. This work is oriented toward reducing the negative impact of the canals, toward restoring a more natural hydrology and salinity regime in the area, and toward restoring habitats for American crocodile. Additional work is needed for which planning/environmental compliance documentation was completed in March 2015 (see below).|
|№||Site need title||Brief description of potential site needs||Support needed for following years|
|1||NPS||CAPE SABLE CANALS DAM RESTORATION PROJECT: Work to plug remaining canals (the Raulerson Canal, East Side Creek, and House and Slagle’s ditches) is in the implementation phase. Additional external funding will be required to implement the larger Raulerson Canal projects.|
|2||NPS||EXOTIC ANIMAL MANAGEMENT: In spite of extremely good interagency coordination, exotic animal management in Everglades National Park is proving to be challenging. Funding has been project-based from Everglades National Park sources; additional funding is needed. Greater use of the Lacey Act is needed to stem import and release of exotic pets. Innovative approaches and application of new technologies will be necessary to protect native Everglades’ species of mammals and birds. Significantly increased funding must be applied to exotic animal control. This is a critical, daunting challenge to the protection of the native fauna for which the park was established.|
|3||NPS Everglades National Park and NPS Southeast Regional Office||EXOTIC PLANT MANAGEMENT: work to remove exotic plant species from Everglades National Park lands, throughout all habitats. Additional funding is needed to reduce the infestation of exotic plants in Everglades National Park habitats to acceptable levels, and to maintain park habitats in perpetuity. Continued internal and external funding is necessary for this highly successful programme that confronts a critical challenge to the protection of ENP.|
Davis, S. and Ogden, J.C. (1994). Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press.
Dorcas, M.E., Willson, J.D., Reed, R.N., Snow, R.W., Rochforde, M.R., Millerf, M.A., Meshaka, Jr. M.E., Andreadish, P.T., Mazzottie, F.J., Romagosai, C.M. and Hartj, K.M. (2012). Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(7), pp.2418-2422.
ENP. (2015). Everglades National Park, Final General Management Plan. East Everglades Wilderness Study. [online] Environmental Impact Study. Vol. 1. Homestead, FL: US, NPS. Available at: [Accessed 11 March 2019].
Lodge, T.E. (2010). The Everglades Handbook: Understanding the Ecosystem, 3rd Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Longcore, T. and Rich, C. (2004). Ecological light pollution. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, pp.191-198.
McVoy, C.W., Said, W.P., Obeysekera, J., Van Arman, J. and Dreschel, T. (2011). Landscapes and Hydrology of the Pre-Drainage Everglades. Gainsville, FL: University Press of Florida.
NPS. (2014). National Park Visitor Spending Effects. Natural Resources Report NP/NRSSEQD/NRR—2014/769. [Online] Available at: www.nature.nps.gov/socialscience/products.cfm#MGM.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. (2016). Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades. The Sixth Biennial Review—2016. 246 pp. Washington, DC: Water Science and Technology Board, Committee on Independent Scientific Review of Everglades Restoration Progress.
State Party of the United States of America. (2017). Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Everglades National Park (United States of America). [online] Washington D.C., United States of America: Dept. of the Interior. Available at: [Accessed 11 March 2019].
World Heritage Committee. (2006). Statement of Significance. Decision 30COM 11B. Follow-up to the Periodic Report for North America / Adoption of Statements of Significance. Context of Decision WHC-06/30.COM/11B.Add, p.5. [Online] Available at: (Accessed: 5 March 2019).