Fanjingshan

© IUCN/Cyril Grueter
Country
China
Inscribed in
2018
Criterion
(x)
The conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good with some concerns" in the latest assessment cycle. Explore the Conservation Outlook Assessment for the site below. You have the option to access the summary, or the detailed assessment.
Located within the Wuling mountain range in Guizhou Province (south-west China), Fanjingshan ranges in altitude between 500 metres and 2,570 metres above sea level, favouring highly diverse types of vegetation and relief. It is an island of metamorphic rock in a sea of karst, home to many plant and animal species that originated in the Tertiary period, between 65 million and 2 million years ago. The property’s isolation has led to a high degree of biodiversity with endemic species, such as the Fanjingshan Fir (Abies fanjingshanensis) and the Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi), and endangered species, such as the Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus), the Forest Musk Deer (Moschus berezovskii) and Reeve’s Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii). Fanjingshan has the largest and most contiguous primeval beech forest in the subtropical region. © UNESCO
© IUCN/Cyril Grueter
© IUCN/Cyril Grueter

Summary

2020 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
01 Dec 2020
Good with some concerns
The World Heritage values of Fanjingshan are in good condition and are likely to remain so should the current threats and issues with management highlighted at the time of inscription be addressed under the new management plan due in 2020. The greatest threat to the values of the site are impacts from tourism and associated infrastructure development. As such, effective conservation of the site will be contingent on striking the balance between conservation and development. The statement that 'when tourist numbers start to damage the OUV, it is time to stop growth and reduce to sustainable levels' made by the State Party is reassuring to some extent, however management could be more proactive in avoiding damage based on appropriate impact assessments. Threats to some key species such as the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey include poaching and the hitherto poorly understood threat of climate change to the wider ecosystem. The protection and management of the site is well informed through exemplary monitoring data collection, which should be used to establish effective adaptive monitoring in the new management plan. Further clarity on the process through which local communities were relocated has been requested of the State Party.

Current state and trend of VALUES

Good
Trend
Stable
The values are in good condition and generally well protected. The site is newly inscribed on the World Heritage list and therefore there have been no significant changes to their state since inscription, so trends are deemed stable until further assessments can be made. Despite some concerns around visitation management and poaching, the threats to the values are very well monitored, allowing effective management actions to be designed. However, the future impacts of climate change on the values of the site are still poorly understood. 

Overall THREATS

Low Threat
The primary forest comprising around 90% of the site and constituting the greater part of the OUV of the site is largely protected from threats due to the ruggedness of the terrain. The construction of a cable car may have caused some disturbance to native wildlife and made previously difficult to access areas in the upper altitudinal zones more accessible, however also reduces foot traffic on the path leading to Jinding Peak. Poaching has historically threatened a number of species in the site, decimating species such as the giant salamander and even bringing some to local extinction, albeit happening prior to inscription. However, poaching is reported by the State Party to now be largely under control. Potential threats such as climate change, and those associated with nearby settlements and industry such as pollution and aquaculture require greater study to understand their likely or anticipated impacts.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Mostly Effective
Overall, the protection and management of Fanjingshan World Heritage site is mostly effective. The management system is likely to undergo some change in the near future, as the existing management plan is due to expire in 2020 along with the more widespread changes to China's protected area system in general. This represents an opportunity to address issues identified at the time of inscription in 2018, when IUCN considered that the management of the nominated property did not fully meet the requirements of the Operational Guidelines (IUCN, 2018). The excellent monitoring system which uses spatial data akin to the SMART system should be built upon to achieve effective adaptive management of the site within the new management plan. The State Party have yet to report to the World Heritage Committee, however should clarify the degree to which relocation of those previously living inside the site was carried out in an appropriate manner, along with ongoing concerns regarding the effective enforcement of anti-poaching patrols, particularly in relation the giant salamander and trapping in the buffer zones, and the policy on taming wild animals. The visitation of the site is currently relatively well enforced and contained to a small area of the property. However any future tourism infrastructure development, particularly at the western access to the property would be of concern.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
01 Dec 2020

Description of values

A unique isolated ecosystem in a sea of surrounding limestone with high endemism

Criterion
(x)
Fanjingshan is an island of metamorphic rock in a sea of karst and is home to many ancient and relict plant and animal species which originated in the Tertiary period. The fauna and flora therefore has a high degree of endemism, with species such as the Fanjingshan Fir (Abies fanjingshanensis) and the Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi), 46 local endemic and 1,010 Chinese endemic plant species, as well as 4 locally endemic vertebrate species (World Heritage Committee, 2018).  

The largest and most contiguous primeval beech forest in the subtropical region and associated species

Criterion
(x)
The 40,275 ha site has communities of three different subtropical beech species (Fagus longipetiolata, F. lucida, and F. engleriana) in what the nomination dossier states  is the largest and most contiguous primeval beech forest in the subtropical region, (State Party of China, 2018). These forests provide important habitat for many threatened species including 64 plant and 38 animal species that are listed as Vulnerable (VU), Endangered (EN) or Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List, most notably Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey, Chinese Giant Salamander, Forest Musk Deer, Reeves’s Pheasant, Asiatic Black Bear, and Bretschneidera sinensis (World Heritage Committee, 2018).

Flagship endemic and threatened species including the entire global wild populations of the magnificent large primate - Guizhou Snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi) and Fanjingshan fir (Abies fanjingshanensis).

Criterion
(x)
The site is home to flagship endemic species of elevated conservation concern due to their small range and populations contained entirely within the site. This is the only site in which the endemic Guizhou Snub-nosed monkey is known. A total population of c. 750 roam these forests in a loose population of troops that sometimes split up and sometimes aggregate (Long et al. 2020). The endangered conifer Fanjingshan fir is also entirely confined to the site (World Heritage Committee, 2018).

Outstanding floral richness of comprising unique bryophytes and gymnosperms.

Criterion
(x)
Fanjingshan is characterized by an exceptional floral richness including 791 bryophyte species, of which 74 are endemic to China, and one of the richest concentrations of gymnosperms in the world, with 36 species, representing one of the distribution centres for gymnosperms in China (World Heritage Committee, 2018).
Very high overall richness of most taxa.
3,724 plant species have been recorded in the property, an impressive 13% of China’s total flora. The property is characterized by an exceptionally high richness in bryophytes as well as one of the distribution centres for gymnosperms in China. The diversity of invertebrates is also very high with 2,317 species. A total of 450 vertebrate species are found inside the property.

Assessment information

Low Threat
Planned and existent levels of tourism far exceed the IUCN advise on safe levels, and the construction of a cable car may have had some negative implications for wildlife in the site. However, visitation is well regulated and only permitted within an area comprising 2.1% of the site and therefore is relatively contained. Monitoring of the ecological effects of the cable car also determine the level of threat posed by its operation, such that management actions can be taken if necessary. Failure to enforce regulations or the expansion of tourism infrastructure as an alternative to manage increasing tourist numbers is a concern, particularly in light of the sites World Heritage inscription. This is particularly the case surrounding potential plans to develop the currently little used western access. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic tourism levels have fallen in 2020 and the future for visitation of the site remains unclear in the short to medium term. Poaching appears to have been brought under control in recent years with efforts to enforce protection measures. However ongoing investment is required to contain this threat in order to encourage recovery of a number of species which have been historically decimated by such hunting.
Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
(Large numbers of visitors and tourism infrastructure)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Noise level of visitors and use of large cable car disturbs the natural peace of site and may change ranging patterns of monkey troops, which have undergone change in their distribution over the past few decades (PHVA 1999, Bleisch et al. 2008).  The local government have been taking measures to mitigate the impact, including improving technical means to reduce the cable car noise; strengthening noise monitoring; all visitors are required to leave the mountain by 18:00 o 'clock amongst others (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Visitors could also transmit zoonoses to the monkeys. Disturbance by visitors may also have detrimental effects towards other animals sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance (IUCN Consultation, 2020). However, on the other hand, the cable car has also led to a reduction of foot traffic on the path leading to Jinding Peak (IUCN, 2018). World Heritage inscription of the site may induce further infrastructure to accommodate higher number of tourists and create further fragmentation of the habitat and disturbance to the species of importance to the values of the site (IUCN, 2018). However visitation is currently strictly regulated, with a maximum of 8,000 visitors per day all within the 'presentation area' which represents just 2.1% of the entire site (IUCN, 2018; Ministry of Housing and Urban Rural Development, 2016), making its impacts localised and low overall. 
Livestock Farming / Grazing
(Villages in buffer zone face some wildlife conflicts)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Historical reports exist of villagers coming into conflict and in some cases killing animals such as bears as a result (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Anecdotal evidence of monkeys entering agricultural fields, and in some cases being captured and injured by locals have also been reported (IUCN Consultation, 2020). However, the threat is localised to the buffer zone as strict protection measures are well enforced within the core conservation areas. 
Hunting and trapping
(Poaching of key or endangered species)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Outside site
Populations of giant salamander have been decimated by poaching over the past few decades, however this threat is now reportedly under control (IUCN, 2018) and therefore a low level threat. There was some evidence at the time of inscription that active poaching continued, as well as some harvesting for re-stocking purposes in nearby salamander farms (IUCN, 2018) as there used to be three salamander farms within the property and buffer zone. However, to protect the habitat of Giant Chinese Salamander in Fanjingshan, avoid and mitigate the risk of transmission of diseases, breeding salamander within the site and buffer zone is now not allowed by the local government. All the salamander breeding farms in property and buffer zone were also shut down in 2018 (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Direct poaching of snub-nosed monkeys no longer appears to be a threat but reports of indirect poaching (through snares set for other wildlife such as muntjac and musk deer) existed until recently (IUCN, 2018). Hunting of other wildlife is also thought to have extirpated a number of species which would previously have occurred within the site such as leopard (Panthera pardus - VU) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa - VU), and there is no recent evidence to support claims of their continued existence in the property. 
Low Threat
Extreme weather events induced by climate change may threaten sensitive species, including the Guizhou snub nosed monkey, whose entire known global population lies within the site, making them particularly vulnerable to sudden extreme weather events. Shifting altitudinal vegetation patterns may also have a potential impact on the functioning and health of the ecosystem and its values. Although data is lacking on the effects of climate change in the site, such potential impacts would be consistent with other montane sites in China. Industrial air pollution emanating from areas in close proximity to the site carry potential but as yet unknown threats along with the potential for transmission of diseases between aquaculture farms and wild populations of giant salamander inside the site. 
Habitat Shifting/ Alteration, Temperature extremes, Storms/Flooding
(Extreme weather events may threaten some species and result in altitudinal vegetation shifts.)
Data Deficient
Inside site
, Throughout(>50%)
Research on the effects of climate change on the values of the site, particularly on sensitive species and ecological specialists such as Guizhou Snubnosed Monkey and Fanjingshan Fir, is still limited and therefore data deficient. However, research on this potential threat appears to be scaling up through funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (IUCN, 2018).
Marine/ Freshwater Aquaculture
(Transmission of disease from farmed salamander to wild populations)
Data Deficient
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Outside site
A number of salamander farms are located within close proximity to the site, which are reported to harvest wild specimens for re-stocking purposes. Additional concerns have been raised over the risk of disease transmission, including the devastating chytridiomycosis, given the close proximity of the farms to the the wild populations of giant salamander within the site (IUCN, 2018). However, salamander farms no longer exist in the site, nor in the buffer zone, so this potential threat is likely to be very low/ non-existent.
Air Pollution
(Industrial air pollution)
Data Deficient
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Industrial air pollution from areas within close proximity to the site, such as Tongren, is a potential threat to a number of the site's values as reports of acid rain have been documented (IUCN, 2018). However, there is a current lack of data on whether and how such pollution may be affecting forest health, and further investigation is merited (IUCN, 2018). 
The primary forest comprising around 90% of the site and constituting the greater part of the OUV of the site is largely protected from threats due to the ruggedness of the terrain. The construction of a cable car may have caused some disturbance to native wildlife and made previously difficult to access areas in the upper altitudinal zones more accessible, however also reduces foot traffic on the path leading to Jinding Peak. Poaching has historically threatened a number of species in the site, decimating species such as the giant salamander and even bringing some to local extinction, albeit happening prior to inscription. However, poaching is reported by the State Party to now be largely under control. Potential threats such as climate change, and those associated with nearby settlements and industry such as pollution and aquaculture require greater study to understand their likely or anticipated impacts.
Management system
Mostly Effective
The management system is centred around a comprehensive management plan which sets out management objectives relating specifically to the values for which the site is listed under the World Heritage Convention (Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development People’s Republic of China, 2016). There are three main management agencies responsible for the property, i.e. the Administration of Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, the Administration of Yinjiang Yangxi Provincial Nature Reserve (both department-level government affiliated institutions), and the Forest Department (directly affiliated with Guizhou Province).  The current management plan expires in 2020, which coincides with widescale reforms in the protected areas systems in China. As such, the management system is likely to undergo significant change in the near future.
Effectiveness of management system
Mostly Effective
The management system is mostly effective, however somewhat hampered by the rather complicated institutional overlaps concerning the implementation of management actions and policy within the site, However, this issue should be resolved under current reform underway within China's protected area systems. Each of the component protected areas of the nominated property (except for the National Non-commercial Forest) also have established management activities for ecotourism development of Guizhou Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, and for the conservation of Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey which supplement the management system for the World Heritage site (IUCN, 2018).
Boundaries
Mostly Effective
The boundaries were found by the IUCN evaluation mission (IUCN, 2018) to be adequate in covering all important local floristic elements which constitute OUV and of sufficient size to encompass the entire known home range of Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey, particularly through the inclusion of the Chayuan area of the Yinjiang Yangxi Provincial Nature Reserve. However, the ecological connectivity between the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve and the Chayuan area is curtailed through a combination of roads, some settlement and agricultural cropping land (IUCN, 2018). There is also some disharmony in that the boundaries of the Fanjingshan Biosphere Reserve and WH site do not match.
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Data Deficient
The site is interesting due to its isolation so little integration is needed. One concern is the danger of the entire global population of a significant monkey being in one site vulnerable to any natural catastrophe. Thought is being given of the need to establish a second wild population. However the extraction of individuals from the current population is currently considered unjustified, given the fragility of the species in the wild (IUCN, 2018). 
Relationships with local people
Some Concern
There are several villages within the nominated property (5, with 718 households) and in the buffer zone (18, with 4,974 households). Management of community lands and related decision-making is done by Village Committees, independent of the Nature Reserve administrations. Local communities also have a right to vote on any decisions being made by the Nature Reserve administrations that may affect them and relations seem to improving (IUCN 2018; IUCN Consultation, 2020).
The management plan includes a significant portion (>25%) of funds allocated to the sustainable development of local communities, including the construction of new homes, repairs to existing structures, and training in alternative livelihoods such as bamboo weaving and furniture manufacture (IUCN, 2018). However, it is currently uncertain the extent to which the process and measures taken concerning the relocation of residents living within the boundaries of the site were carried out in a fully voluntary process and in line with the policies of the Convention and relevant international norms, including principles related to free, prior and informed consent (FPIC), effective consultation, fair compensation, access to social benefits and skills training, and the preservation of cultural rights (World Heritage Committee, 2018). It is understood that this issue is being addressed, however until this is formally reported on to the World Heritage Committee as requested, it remains unclear. 
Legal framework
Highly Effective
The legal framework allows the effective implementation of the management plan and the objectives therein, and is therefore considered highly effective (IUCN 2018). China is implementing major reforms to the organisation of protected areas including new laws and directives across the country.
Law enforcement
Some Concern
Although the management of the site was commended upon inscription for the monitoring systems in place, including CCTV, camera traps, drones, and a GPS-based patrol system (World Heritage Committee, 2018), some concerns remain relating to anti-poaching enforcement (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Cases of poaching occur in buffer zone villages around the property, with snares reported to be set for muntjac and musk deer etc., which also trap other species including the Guizhou snub monkey on occasion (IUCN, 2018). The poaching of giant salamanders to stock local breeding farms, which was a major reason at the time of inscription, along with other compounding factors, that the site could not be considered to be effectively conserving this particular species, which contributes significantly to the OUV of the site (IUCN, 2018). However, since inscription this particular threat has been mitigated against as salamander farms no longer operate in the site or the buffer zone (IUCN Consultation, 2020). The Administration of Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, in cooperation with the three related county governments,  has established a joint law enforcement mechanism to promote law enforcement, including poaching control in the buffer zone (IUCN Consultation, 2020). 
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Data Deficient
As a relatively new WH site, there is not enough history to assess this topic. A number of requests were made of the State Party upon inscription of the site (World Heritage Committee, 2018). It remains to be seen to what extent these decisions and recommendations have been carried out.
Sustainable use
Mostly Effective
Despite reports of some poaching in the buffer zones, there is low concern as to use of natural resources within the site given the strict protection the core area is afforded. However, further clarity is required relating to the policy on wild taming of animals noted in the management plan (IUCN, 2018; World Heritage Committee, 2018). Training has been delivered to local villagers to develop sustainable alternative livelihoods such as bamboo weaving and furniture manufacture (IUCN, 2018). Areas within the site have also been used as culturally significant worship sites, but these activities do not extract any natural resources and there is no indication that the rights of local people to access and use these sites have been impeded by the inscription (IUCN, 2018).
Sustainable finance
Mostly Effective
There are three sources of funding - Central Government, Guizhou Provincial Government, and a small part of self-generated funding coming from the operating incomes of Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve and Yinjiang Yangxi Provincial Nature Reserve. The current budget appears adequate to meet the needs of the nominated property, provided that actual allocations meet the estimates in the management plan (IUCN 2018).
Staff capacity, training, and development
Mostly Effective
Staff levels are considered to be low for the size and complexity of the site, however were deemed adequate in the nomination evaluation despite this (IUCN 2018). A systematic and comprehensive monitoring system is in place within the relevant areas of the site for ecological and visitation monitoring, which integrates new technologies including drones and GPS-based patrol systems for which the State Party was commended upon inscription (World Heritage Committee, 2018)
Education and interpretation programs
Mostly Effective
Most visitors are day trippers to see the Buddhist temple and views from the cable car and stations on the footways. There are extensive and good educational notices and signage. 
The reserve does implement some education and training to local villages including the need to respect the protection status and adopt alternative sustainable industries such as bamboo handicrafts.
Tourism and visitation management
Some Concern
An international workshop organised by IUCN  SRC in 1999 were already alarmed at the number of 100,000 visitors a year which they considered a serious threat to the Snub-nosed monkeys (PHVA 1999). Tourist numbers have been steadily rising, from 180,000 in 2010 to 360,000 in 2014, however is well controlled. Public use is tightly regulated and closely monitored, with a maximum of 8,000 visitors per day. All tourism activities are concentrated in a relatively small area (the presentation zone) which comprises only 2.1% of the nominated property, and tourists are strictly prohibited from entering the conservation zone. A cable car provides the main access to this area and effectively concentrates visitation. All overnight stays on the mountain tops are prohibited. IUCN (2018) advise against opening up a second cable car. Numbers already well exceed earlier estimates of safe levels and noise carries a long way in the mountains affecting shy wildlife over much larger areas than actually used by visitors.
Monitoring
Mostly Effective
The site implements some advanced monitoring techniques, including the use of 250 camera traps (not counting the 58 CCTV cameras used for monitoring tourists) scattered throughout the property (i.e. one camera for every 1.6 km2 ), the use of a GPS-based monitoring system akin to the Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool (SMART), and the use of drones to monitor inaccessible areas. The latter is particularly used for monitoring Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey. A systematic monitoring system is in the process of being developed, which will involve monitoring of OUV, visitors, environmental quality, natural disasters, human activity, and villages. Monitoring indicators are still being developed and should in the future enable the adoption of an adaptive management approach (IUCN, 2018; World Heritage Committee, 2018).
Research
Mostly Effective
Much ad hoc research has been undertaken by domestic and international scientists on inventory of fauna and flora especially bryophytes, gymnosperms; beech community; behaviour, genetics and ecology of the snub-nosed monkeys; status of giant salamanders etc.  The nomination dossier lists more than 300 scientific publications (China 2018). New research on the impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of the nominated property, especially on particularly sensitive species and ecological specialists such as Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey and Fanjingshan Fir, is still in its infancy, but some projects are currently being funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Management Plan 2018, IUCN 2018).
Overall, the protection and management of Fanjingshan World Heritage site is mostly effective. The management system is likely to undergo some change in the near future, as the existing management plan is due to expire in 2020 along with the more widespread changes to China's protected area system in general. This represents an opportunity to address issues identified at the time of inscription in 2018, when IUCN considered that the management of the nominated property did not fully meet the requirements of the Operational Guidelines (IUCN, 2018). The excellent monitoring system which uses spatial data akin to the SMART system should be built upon to achieve effective adaptive management of the site within the new management plan. The State Party have yet to report to the World Heritage Committee, however should clarify the degree to which relocation of those previously living inside the site was carried out in an appropriate manner, along with ongoing concerns regarding the effective enforcement of anti-poaching patrols, particularly in relation the giant salamander and trapping in the buffer zones, and the policy on taming wild animals. The visitation of the site is currently relatively well enforced and contained to a small area of the property. However any future tourism infrastructure development, particularly at the western access to the property would be of concern.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Some Concern
The close proximity of salamander breeding farms to the site has raised some concern due to the possibility of disease transmission between wild and domestically-bred populations, especially noting the policy on taming wild animals outlined in the management plan, however this threat has been mitigated against since inscription. Former logging operations and small illegal gold mines have all long been closed.
World Heritage values

A unique isolated ecosystem in a sea of surrounding limestone with high endemism

Good
Trend
Stable
This value remains true and the Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests and the the Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregions are maintained in good condition within the site, including the high degree of endemism resulting from the sites isolation. Overall protection of the wealth of biodiversity within these two key ecoregions is good (IUCN, 2018).

The largest and most contiguous primeval beech forest in the subtropical region and associated species

Good
Trend
Stable
The primeval beech forests contained within the site remain in good condition and safely protected, largely due to the inaccessibility of the majority of the site (IUCN, 2018). Given the relatively little time that has elapsed since the inscription of the property, the species and communities associated with the forests are likely to remain in good condition too. 

Flagship endemic and threatened species including the entire global wild populations of the magnificent large primate - Guizhou Snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi) and Fanjingshan fir (Abies fanjingshanensis).

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
The site remains the sole habitat for the Guizhou snub nosed monkey (Long et al., 2020), but points to the risk of having the entire population of an important species in one single site. The entire population could be eliminated by disease, possible transmitted from human, or any natural catastrophe. Consideration has been given to finding another location to set up a second wild population (PVHA 1999), but at this stage removing individuals from the population is not viable (IUCN, 2018). Likewise, Fanjingshan fir (Abies fanjingshanensis) remains in similar condition to that at the time of inscription, albeit endangered on the IUCN Red list, due to its occurrence within a single stand covering around 30 hectares, making it very sensitive to disturbance. 

Outstanding floral richness of comprising unique bryophytes and gymnosperms.

Good
Trend
Stable
The bryophyte and gymnosperm communities are unlikely to have changed in the two years which have elapsed since its inscription on the World Heritage list. However, there is concern that a changing climate could jeopardise the state of this value due to its dependence on very humid conditions (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Good
Trend
Stable
The values are in good condition and generally well protected. The site is newly inscribed on the World Heritage list and therefore there have been no significant changes to their state since inscription, so trends are deemed stable until further assessments can be made. Despite some concerns around visitation management and poaching, the threats to the values are very well monitored, allowing effective management actions to be designed. However, the future impacts of climate change on the values of the site are still poorly understood. 
Assessment of the current state and trend of other important biodiversity values
Good
Trend
Stable
The values are in good condition and generally well protected.

Additional information

Access to drinking water
The mountains are an important water trap and streams run radially in all directions to be used by villages and agriculure, eventually flowing into major rivers.
Service will be maintained so long as there is good vegation cover of the mountains.
Sacred natural sites or landscapes
The property houses an important Buddhist temple and remains an important pilgrimage site. In addition local minority ethnic groups respect many spiritual values of the mountains and local folklore.
Outdoor recreation and tourism
Large numbers of tourists visit the site for healthy recreation and admiration of the natural spleandours.
Importance for research
Important research is undertaken on the evolution of tropical forests, ecology, primates and rare species.
Carbon sequestration,
Soil stabilisation,
Water provision (importance for water quantity and quality)
This is a large green forest and contributes greatly in carbon fixation and storage.
Whilst valuable for research, recreation and culture, the value of the ecosystem service of water catchment is probably the highest.
Organization Brief description of Active Projects Website
1 National Natural Science Foundation of China Research on the impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of the nominated property, especially on particularly sensitive species and ecological specialists such as Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey and Fanjingshan Fir, is still in its infancy, but some projects are currently being funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

References

References
1
Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey Conservation and PHVA Workshop. (1999). Final Report
2
IUCN. (2018). World Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation, Fanjingshan (China). In: IUCN World Heritage Evaluations 2018, IUCN Evaluations of nominations of natural and mixed properties to the World Heritage List. WHC/18/42.COM/INF.8B.6 [online] Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1559/documents/ ; [Accessed 31 July 2019].
3
Long, Y., Bleisch, W.V., Richardson, M. & Baoguo, L. (2020). Rhinopithecus brelichi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T19595A17944061. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T19595A17944… on 25 November 2020.
4
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. (2016). Fanjingshan Management Plan. [online] Beijing, China: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1559/documents/ [Accessed 31 July 2019].
5
State Party of China. (2018). Nomination of Fanjingshan as a World Heritage Site. [online] Beijing, the Peoples Republic of China: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, the
People’s Republic of China. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1559/documents/ [Accessed 15 June 2020].
6
World Heritage Committee. (2018). Decision 42 COM 8B.6. Fanjingshan (China). [online] Paris, France: World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/archive/2018/whc18-42com-18-en.pdf (Accessed 13 September 2019).

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