Mount Etna

Country
Italy
Inscribed in
2013
Criterion
(viii)
The conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good" in the latest assessment cycle. Explore the Conservation Outlook Assessment for the site below. You have the option to access the summary, or the detailed assessment.

Mount Etna is an iconic site encompassing 19,237 uninhabited hectares on the highest part of Mount Etna, on the eastern coast of Sicily. Mount Etna is the highest Mediterranean island mountain and the most active stratovolcano in the world. The eruptive history of the volcano can be traced back 500,000 years and at least 2,700 years of this activity has been documented. The almost continuous eruptive activity of Mount Etna continues to influence volcanology, geophysics and other Earth science disciplines. The volcano also supports important terrestrial ecosystems including endemic flora and fauna and its activity makes it a natural laboratory for the study of ecological and biological processes. The diverse and accessible range of volcanic features such as summit craters, cinder cones, lava flows and the Valle de Bove depression have made the site a prime destination for research and education. © UNESCO

© IUCN/Bastian Bertzky

Summary

2020 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
02 Dec 2020
Good
The geological values of the site are well-preserved and its Outstanding Universal Value is not threatened at present. Considering that Mount Etna is listed for criterion (viii), highlighting “active volcanic processes”, eruptions and the natural processes are seen as adding to the geological value and associated scientific interest in the site. Protection and management of the site are mostly effective; however, some concerns exist regarding the current levels of staffing and funding. Additional financial and technical support could help improve visitor facilities and environmental education programmes. Etna remains one the best-studied volcanoes in the world, however, the capacity of the site management and other institutions to sustain ongoing monitoring and research should continue to be strengthened. Overall, the Outlook for the site remains good, given the status of the values of the site are well-preserved and indeed ongoing through continued eruption, and although protection and management could be improved in some areas is mostly effective in dealing with the low level threats to the site.

Current state and trend of VALUES

Good
Trend
Stable
The geological values of the site are well-preserved and its Outstanding Universal Value is not threatened at present. Etna remains of one the most active and best-studied volcanoes in the world, however, the capacity of the site management and other institutions to sustain ongoing monitoring and research should continue to be strengthened.

Overall THREATS

Very Low Threat
Geological values of the site which are the basis for its inscription on the World Heritage List are currently not facing any significant threats and it is unlikely that any potential threats will emerge. Considering that Mount Etna is listed for criterion viii, highlighting “active volcanic processes”, eruptions and other natural processes are seen as adding to the geological value and associated scientific interest in the site.  There are a number of low threats affecting biodiversity values of the site.

 

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Mostly Effective
Protection and management of the site are mostly effective and improvements have been reported regarding the levels of funding and staffing. Additional financial and technical support could help improve visitor facilities and environmental education programmes further. Existing monitoring and research activities also need to be sustained in the long term, while many efforts have been done to this aim in the recent years.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
02 Dec 2020

Description of values

One of the world’s most active and iconic volcanoes

Criterion
(viii)
Mount Etna is one of the world’s most active and iconic volcanoes, and an outstanding example of ongoing geological processes and volcanic landforms (IUCN, 2013, World Heritage Committee, 2013). The stratovolcano is characterized by almost continuous eruptive activity from its summit craters and fairly frequent lava flow eruptions from craters and fissures on its flanks (World Heritage Committee, 2013).

One of the best-studied and monitored volcanoes

Criterion
(viii)
Mount Etna is one of the best-studied and monitored volcanoes in the world, and continues to influence volcanology, geophysics and other earth science disciplines. Mount Etna's activity has been documented by humans for at least 2700 years, making it one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism (World Heritage Committee, 2013).
Endemic flora
Mount Etna's flora is specialized to the very particular volcanic habitat. Ten endemic plant species are restricted to the zones above 2100 m. Several species are protected by Italian laws and by the EU Habitats Directive (State Party of Italy, 2012).
Endemic fauna
Etna's endemic fauna includes mainly arthropods with numerous endemic insects. Several species are protected by Italian laws and by the EU Habitats Directive (State Party of Italy, 2012). Furthermore, studies on the biology and eco-ethology of local wildcat are underway, which are demonstrating that this is the only Mediterranean population not introduced by human.
Unique ecosystems
As an isolated island volcano in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot, Mount Etna supports important terrestrial ecosystems and communities with a high rate of endemism and adapted to the edaphic and climatic conditions (IUCN, 2013). Several habitats are protected by Italian laws and by the EU Habitats Directive.

Assessment information

Very Low Threat
Geological values of the site which are the basis for its inscription on the World Heritage List are not facing any high threats. Considering that Mount Etna is listed for criterion viii, highlighting “active volcanic processes”, eruptions and other natural processes are seen as adding to the geological value and associated scientific interest in the site. There are a number of low threats affecting biodiversity values of the site.
 
Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
(Impacts of tourism)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Public access to the top of Mount Etna continues to be periodically prohibited for safety reasons; access is regulated based on scientific report of the INGV (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology). Mount Etna cableway, which is located inside the buffer zone (Zone C/ALT) and was preexistent to the Mount Etna Regional Park Institution, and organized 4x4 drives, which are authorized by the Park Institution, increase access to the site which increases littering, erosion, noise and disturbance of wildlife.
Livestock Farming / Grazing
(Livestock grazing)
Low Threat
Outside site
Low-intensity livestock grazing is permitted within the World Heritage site and occurs in parts of it in the summer season (IUCN, 2013). The Management Plan of Natura 2000 Site (which covers the whole World Heritage site), has resulted in a significant reduction in the permitted grazing intensity (from 2 UBA/ha to 1/2 UBA/ha) according to regional disposal DDG in n°36/2015.
Very Low Threat
The geological values of the site, which are the basis for its inscription on the World Heritage List, do not appear to be faced with any significant emerging threats.
 
Fire/ Fire Suppression
(Fires)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Fires pose a threat to the site’s biodiversity values, especially the vegetation. Fires could be triggered naturally (volcanism, lightning) but also by humans (IUCN, 2013). Since 2013, there have been no incidences of fire inside the World Heritage site (Corpo Forestale, 2017). The Mount Etna Authority Annual programme includes prevention activities against fires. However, fires across the Mediterranean region are predicted to increase and therefore this threat might intensify in the future (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Tourism/ Recreation Areas
(Tourism infrastructure development)
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Development of large-scale tourism infrastructure could potentially be a threat, although no construction activity is permitted within the World Heritage site.
Geological values of the site which are the basis for its inscription on the World Heritage List are currently not facing any significant threats and it is unlikely that any potential threats will emerge. Considering that Mount Etna is listed for criterion viii, highlighting “active volcanic processes”, eruptions and other natural processes are seen as adding to the geological value and associated scientific interest in the site.  There are a number of low threats affecting biodiversity values of the site.

 
Management system
Mostly Effective
The management of the site is coordinated by the public agency Ente Parco dell’Etna – the management authority of the Etna Regional Nature Park (IUCN, 2013), also through the external involvement of the INGV (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), Catania University, Regional Department for Rural and Territorial Development. The park’s Executive Committee, a technical body, is in charge of decisions concerning the park’s budget, administration and management. The park director leads the day-to-day administration and management of Etna Park (IUCN, 2013). The main instrument for the management of the protected area is the park territorial plan and related regulations (IUCN, 2013). An important update of the Management Plan of the World Heritage site of Mount Etna is almost complete (2020), for which the translation into English is being carried out (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Effectiveness of management system
Mostly Effective
The IUCN Evaluation report (2013) noted that the current levels of staffing and funding were adequate, however, they “may be short of the levels required as World Heritage Site”. The Operative Plan of the World Heritage site for 2016 was implemented by local staff through the involvement of an expert geomorphologist following successfully securing funding (IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Boundaries
Highly Effective
The boundaries of the site are clearly defined and include the site’s key geological values which are the basis for its inscription (IUCN, 2013).
 
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Mostly Effective
Coordination between different national and regional institutions could be improved. At the time of inscription the World Heritage Committee requested the State Party to “coordinate regional and national authorities to maintain and strengthen their support to the property, to further increase the management capacity of the property” (World Heritage Committee, 2013). In 2017, a project aimed to strengthen the management capacity of the property was funded by the Italian government through UNESCO-Italy (Law 77).
Relationships with local people
Highly Effective
The World Heritage nomination was developed through a participatory process and was widely supported by a wide range of stakeholders (IUCN, 2013). The participatory process, involving local people and stakeholders, is constantly implemented through public audits with associations, universities, citizens, schools, also on specific UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) themes. Recently, the Park authorities have presented a tourism flow monitoring, comparing results after and before the inscription of the site on the World Heritage List.
The Park has obtained a state funding from MIBACT (Tourism, Cultural and Environment Heritage Ministry) to implement the project entitled “Strengthening management capacity of the Mount Etna UNESCO Site”, including participatory initiatives aim to finalize and update the Management Plan.
Legal framework
Mostly Effective
The site includes part of the Regional Nature Park “Parco dell’Etna” established in 1987 by the Decree of the President of the Sicilian Regional Autonomy which provides for adequate protection for the key values of the site. 77% of the site also overlap with Natura 2000 sites (World Heritage Committee, 2013). Mount Etna Management Plan (including all 13 Natura 2000 sites inside its boundary) was approved in 2016 (D.D.G. of Environment Department n° 783 dated 24/10/2016).
Law enforcement
Data Deficient
Data deficient
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Mostly Effective
As the site was inscribed on the World Heritage list in 2013, the World Heritage Committee made a number of recommendations, including review and updating of the management plan, enhancement of visitor facilities and promotion of existing education, monitoring and research activities (World Heritage Committee, 2013).

The above-mentioned MIBACT project, "Strengthening management capacity of the Mont Etna UNESCO site" aims to address and comply with the World Heritage Committee recommendation, both to strengthen staff technical capacity, and to review and implement the Management Plan. Furthermore, the project includes communication activities, such as the creation of a logo, a website, and an App to communicate the main values of the site (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Moreover, many tourism facilities have been restored within the buffer zone towards ensuring that the outstanding geological features are not adversely impacted by increasing tourism pressures, as requested bt the World heritage Committee. 
Sustainable use
Data Deficient
Data deficient
Sustainable finance
Some Concern
The management authority Ente Parco dell’Etna receives its core funding from the Sicilian Regional Authority. Other sources of funding include the Italian State and the European Union. IUCN Evaluation report noted that “additional financial and technical support is needed for example to improve the environmental education and ecotourism facilities in the property, and tourism facilities in the buffer zone and wider park area” (IUCN, 2013).
 
Staff capacity, training, and development
Mostly Effective
The management authority Ente Parco dell’Etna has 48 staff members. Although previously onsite management presence had limited expert staff capacity in the fields of volcanology and ecology (IUCN, 2013), the park has now recruited an expert in geomorphology.
Education and interpretation programs
Some Concern
The IUCN Evaluation Report (2013) noted that environmental education could be enhanced with additional financial and technical support. In the recent years, interpretation programmes have been enhanced, including through the production of maps with paths, both in English and Italian.
Tourism and visitation management
Mostly Effective
Tourism facilities, including environmental education programmes were noted to require some improvement at the time of inscription (IUCN, 2013). In recent years, efforts to restore many of the tourism facilities have been undertaken. Interventions entailed new signage/signposts improving information for the visitors, and improvements in the interconnection between the key points for hiking and existing/accessible refuges/huts. In 2020, a further improvement of the network of hiking trails is planned. The Park Authority, jointly with the University of Catania, has carried out a study on tourist flows analysis , recently updated to the latest available data (2020), to understand if, and to what extent, the inscription of Mount Etna on the World Heritage List has had an influence on the quantity and type of tourists (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Monitoring
Highly Effective
There is a large network of monitoring stations and remote sensors to monitor and analyze the volcano’s activity level. Data are also being collected on beech and pine forest areas and on tourism pressure (IUCN, 2013). Ecological monitoring efforts have been expanded in response to the Committee decision at the time of inscription. In 2017, an agreement between the Italian Academy of Forestry Science and Mount Etna Park Authority was established, which aims to undertake an assessment of EU Habitats Directive type 91AA* (Eastern white oak wood). Furthermore, a project entitled “Study on biology and eco-ethology of wildcat in the Regional Park of Etna, and implementation of a conservation plan” has recently been completed, which aims to support the evaluation process to recognise wildcat in the Habitat Directive Annex II. Other projects in 2017 include a research project to monitor golden eagle, Sicilian rock partridge, wild rabbit and wildcat conservation inside Etna Park area.
Additional monitoring projects that are also underway on other themes include tourist flow, of Grotta del gelo (iced lava caved within the property) etc.
Research
Highly Effective
Several research activities are ongoing and involve local and international organizations (IUCN, 2013). During the last three years, research activities authorized have mainly concerned: classification in mycology various activity in the botanic garden "Nuova Guissonea", beech forest, birch population monitoring. Volcanic research continues at this iconic volcano, including studies of radon (Falsaperla et al., 2018), carbon dioxide (Salem et al., 2019), and characteristics of volcanic ash (Polacci et al., 2019), and remote sensing (Laiola et al., 2019).
Protection and management of the site are mostly effective and improvements have been reported regarding the levels of funding and staffing. Additional financial and technical support could help improve visitor facilities and environmental education programmes further. Existing monitoring and research activities also need to be sustained in the long term, while many efforts have been done to this aim in the recent years.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Data Deficient
Data deficient
World Heritage values

One of the world’s most active and iconic volcanoes

Good
Trend
Stable
The geological values of the site are well-preserved and its Outstanding Universal Value is not threatened at present (IUCN, 2013). The ongoing eruptions (Andrews, 2019; CBS News, 2019; Volcano Discovery, 2019) continue to serve as examples of the activity of the volcano and therefore this value is deemed good and stable. 

One of the best-studied and monitored volcanoes

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
Etna remains one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world, however, the capacity of the site management and other institutions to sustain ongoing monitoring and research should continue to be strengthened.
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Good
Trend
Stable
The geological values of the site are well-preserved and its Outstanding Universal Value is not threatened at present. Etna remains of one the most active and best-studied volcanoes in the world, however, the capacity of the site management and other institutions to sustain ongoing monitoring and research should continue to be strengthened.
Assessment of the current state and trend of other important biodiversity values
Good
Trend
Improving
Biodiversity values of the site have been slightly impacted, mainly in the buffer zone, by a number of threats, including grazing, impacts of tourism and waste.

Additional information

Livestock grazing areas
Low-intensity grazing is permitted and occurs in parts of the property in the summer season (IUCN, 2013).
Importance for research
Mount Etna is one of the best-studied and monitored volcanoes in the world.
Outdoor recreation and tourism
The site is an important tourism destination.
Sacred natural sites or landscapes
Mt Etna is an iconic volcano for Sicily, Italy and is well known all over the world. It has also served as a source of inspiration for literature and art.
The addition of Mt. Etna to the World Heritage Site list added a "missing" iconic volcano, important for insuring that the List is comprehensive. The site provides some of the world's best opportunities for science and monitoring of active volcanoes, and its accessibility make it outstanding for recreation and tourism.
Organization Brief description of Active Projects Website
1 NGOs Giacche Verdi Bronte (Italy) and Manfred-Hermsen-Stiftung (Germany) “The joint activity of the environmental NGOs Giacche Verdi Bronte (Italy) and Manfred-Hermsen-Stiftung (Germany) aims for saving the threatened „1000 years old oak trees” at Mount Egitto" which is part of Mount Etna.
http://www.etna-monumental-oaks.org/2.html
2 Ente Parco Etna / Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali “Monitoraggio vegetazionale, forestale e dell’avifauna” (Vegetation, Forestry and Avifauna Monitoring). Core zone - Mount Egitto (which is part of Mount Etna). The presence of centuries-old plants is remarkable in relation to the fast dynamic of the forest environment, which is heavily influenced by the volcanic activity that rarely allows the conservation of old vegetation. An important exception is represented by a cinder cone of modest size isolated by surrounding lava flows: Monte Egitto. Along the flanks of this small mount (“monticcitto”) and within the crater itself, old-growth oak forest is present. The Ente Parco appointed the Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali with the realisation of a detailed monitoring plan for the forest. The monitoring aimed at evaluating the initial state of the monumental tree exemplars and of some of the ecosystem’s key components in the pre-intervention phase. Once the pre-intervention monitoring was completed at the end of summer 2015, the Forest department removed the pine plants which could have interfered with the centuries-old oaks, according to the guidelines provided by the Accademia. In 2017 the Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali performed the post-intervention monitoring. The removal of the pine trees planted close to the centuries-old oaks is the first of a series of interventions, which, in the long term, will allow the perpetuation of the oak trees, provided that the project is carried out in collaboration with the agents that in various capacities can contribute to achieve this common goal.
https://www.unescoparcoetna.it/approfondimenti/monte-egitto/
3 Ente Parco / Servizio Fitosanitario forestale dell’Azienda Foreste Demaniali- Regione Siciliana “Monitoraggio dell’Entomofauna” (Enthomofauna Monitoring)
4 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia INGV, Ente Parco Etna Placement of dynamic digital panels along geological sites inside Etna natural Park. Reorganization, enhancement and promotion of the Museum of Etna (Museo Vulcanologico dell’Etna), located in Nicolosi (CT), through a new interactive concept of museum, in order to increase the spread of scientific research and its impact on society
5 Ente Parco Etna / Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche dell’Universita’ di Palermo “Study on biology and eco-ethology of wildcat in the Regional Park of Etna, and implementation of a conservation plan”. The European wild cat (Felis silvestris silvestris) has a wide distribution in Europe and is classified as “least concern” (species at minimum risk) by IUCN, even if the populations are declining in the whole area. It is registered in the red list of the Italian vertebrates and, at the legislative level, it is listed in the directive ‘Habitat’ of the European Commission. The only Mediterranean wild cat population that is not the result of human introduction lives in Sicily and, more importantly, a recent study highlighted that this population’s genetic patrimony is clearly divergent from the continental Italian population, making it a distinct conservation unity. Due to its insular condition, the preservation of this population in optimum conditions is even more necessary. In 2015 the Etna Park in collaboration with the Department STEBICEF of the University of Palermo launched a research project on the European wild cat within the Park. The research was again carried out in 2018, but this time, it was aimed at clarifying the existing state of the wild cat, the wild rabbit, and the Sicily’ s rock partridge in the Etna Park’s territory, by means of data processing.
https://www.unescoparcoetna.it/approfondimenti/gatto-selvatico/
6 Ente Parco Etna / Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche dell’Universita’ di Palermo Agreement for the implementation of the project “Investigation and monitoring for Sicilian rock partridge, wild rabbit and wildcat conservation in the Etna Park area”.
7 Ente Parco Etna / University of Catania Overall tourist flow analysis. Mont Etna Park Authority, jointly with the University of Catania, has carried out a study on tourist flows, recently updated to the latest available data, to understand if, and to what extent, the inscription of Mount Etna on the World Heritage List has had an influence on the quantity and type of tourists.
https://www.unescoparcoetna.it/approfondimenti/studio-sui-flussi-turistici/ https://www.unescoparcoetna.it/approfondimenti/monitoraggio-dello-stato-di-conservazione-della-sentieristica-dellarea-protetta-del-parco-delletna/ &nbsp;
8 Ente Parco Etna PO-FESR 2014-2020. EU funded project that allowed to improve the Park's network of hiking trails in recent years. Interventions entailed new signage/signposts improving information for the visitors, and improvements in the interconnection between the key points for hiking and existing/accessible refuges/huts. In 2020 a further improvement of the network of hiking trails is planned. This project was put in place on the basis of the recommendation received in 2017 (i.e., to work towards an "Improvement of visitor facilities").
https://www.unescoparcoetna.it/news/i-rifugi/
9 Ente Parco Etna/Centro Speleologico Etneo- funding from MIBACT (Tourism, Cultural and Environment Heritage Ministry) “Grotta del Gelo” Microclimate and ice mass monitoring. The “Grotta del Gelo” is probably the most famous volcanic cave of Etna due to the presence of perennial ice inside it, which is unusual for this latitude and in strong contrast with the arid environment of the surrounding lava field. The increase in visitors has raised concerns regarding the effects of human presence on the conservation of the glacial mass. A specific agreement was signed with the Centro Speleologico Etneo for the better management of this tourism in accordance with the IUCN recommendations and as foreseen by the Management Plan from the Triennial Park Program. The publication reports the results of the most extensive and detailed monitoring carried out so far on the evolution of the glacial mass present within the Grotta del Gelo. This will allow further understanding of the necessary interventions to preserve this small but significant glacier, a true jewel in the Mt Etna Park.
https://www.unescoparcoetna.it/approfondimenti/grotta-del-gelo-monitoraggio-del-microclima-e-della-massa-glaciale/
10 Ente Parco Etna/LIPU Presence of the golden eagle in Etna Park- Monitoring. The “Aquila chrysaetus” is at the top of the food chain. In environments such as those of the Park, where large carnivores have been extinct for centuries, this species has assumed the role of apex-predator, and therefore plays a fundamental role in maintaining the balance of biocoenosis. In fact, the eagle performs an important regulatory action in the population dynamics of the ecosystem. With a special Convention, the Etna Park Authority entrusted LIPU with the task of monitoring, for the 2018-2019 breeding seasons, the presence of the golden eagle in the territory of Etna Park. Additionally, this enabled determining the reproduction rate of the species, which constitutes an important environmental indicator.
https://www.unescoparcoetna.it/approfondimenti/aquila-reale/

References

References
1
Andrews, R. (2019). Mount Etna just started erupting from a new fissure. 24 December, [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/robinandrews/2018/12/24/a-new-… (Accessed 15 August 2019).
2
CBS News. (2019). Mount Etna erupts in Italy, sending ash and lava into the sky. 1 June, [online] CBS News, San Francisco. Available at: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/mount-etna-erupts-in-italy-sen… (Accessed 15 August 2019).
3
Falsaperla, S., Neri, M., Di Grazia, G., Langer, H., & Spampinato, S. (2018). Radon Tells Unexpected Tales of Mount Etna’s Unrest. Eos.
4
IUCN. (2013). World Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation, Mount Etna (Italy). In: IUCN World Heritage Evaluations 2013, IUCN Evaluations of nominations of natural and mixed properties to the World Heritage List. WHC/13/37.COM/ [online] Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. [online] Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1427/documents/ [Accessed 15 January 2017].
5
Laiolo, M., Ripepe, M., Cigolini, C., Coppola, D., Della Schiava, M., Genco, R., ... & Silengo, M. C. (2019). Space-and Ground-Based Geophysical Data Tracking of Magma Migration in Shallow Feeding System of Mount Etna Volcano. Remote Sensing, 11(10), 1182.
6
Polacci, M., Andronico, D., de'Michieli Vitturi, M., Taddeucci, J., & Cristaldi, A. (2019). Mechanisms of ash generation at basaltic volcanoes: the case of Mount Etna, Italy. Frontiers in Earth Science, 7, 193.
7
Salem, L. C., Edmonds, M., Corsaro, R. A., & Maclennan, J. (2019). Carbon dioxide in geochemically heterogeneous melt inclusions from Mount Etna, Italy. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20, pp.3150-3169.
8
State Party of Italy. (2012). Nomination of Mount Etna as a World Heritage Site. [online] Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1427/documents/ (Accessed 17 August 2020). 
9
Volcano Discovery. (2019). Etna volcano updates and eruptions news. [online] Available at: https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/etna/news.html (Accessed 15 August 2019).
10
World Heritage Committee (2013). Decision: 37 COM 8B.15. Mount Etna Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (Italy). In: Decisions Adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 37th Session (Phnom Penh, 2013). [online] Available at: <http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/5131>; [Accessed 16 September 2020].

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