Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley)

Country
Egypt
Inscribed in
2005
Criterion
(viii)
The conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good" in the latest assessment cycle. Explore the Conservation Outlook Assessment for the site below. You have the option to access the summary, or the detailed assessment.
Wadi Al-Hitan, Whale Valley, in the Western Desert of Egypt, contains invaluable fossil remains of the earliest, and now extinct, suborder of whales, Archaeoceti. These fossils represent one of the major stories of evolution: the emergence of the whale as an ocean-going mammal from a previous life as a land-based animal. This is the most important site in the world for the demonstration of this stage of evolution. It portrays vividly the form and life of these whales during their transition. The number, concentration and quality of such fossils here is unique, as is their accessibility and setting in an attractive and protected landscape. The fossils of Al-Hitan show the youngest archaeocetes, in the last stages of losing their hind limbs. Other fossil material in the site makes it possible to reconstruct the surrounding environmental and ecological conditions of the time. © UNESCO
© Peter Howard

Summary

2020 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
01 Dec 2020
Good
The conservation outlook for Wadi Al-Hitan is good overall. Wadi Al-Hitan comprises exceptionally rich values related to the record of life, and these are generally in a very good state of conservation. An appropriate management framework is in place through the updated 2019 Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area including Wadi Al-Hitan as a separate component within its program of action. The management unit still needs to develop a site-level plan for Wadi Al-Hitan within the main management plan document, including its own site maps. Financial resources have increased from previous years and bode well for implementing future management actions. 

Current state and trend of VALUES

Good
Trend
Stable
Overall the status of whale skeletons and other fossils is very good. Different stages of weathering (from natural erosion) and some limited impact of damage/removal by visitors can be observed.

Overall THREATS

Low Threat
Damage, theft and vandalism by visitors, including damage by offroad vehicles, remain the main current threats to the site's fossils, however these tourism and visitation associated threats are managed in order to mitigate their impacts on the values of the site to the extent possible and as such can be considered low threats overall. Whilst the natural process of wind erosion can be considered part of the dynamics of the site, the fragility of the exposed fossils of Wadi Al-Hitan requires that this is treated as a threat to the values of the site and managed accordingly, especially in the context of climate change whereby altered climatic conditions in the future may potentially lead to increased erosion of the fossils held at the site.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Mostly Effective
Overall, the protection and management of Wadi Al-Hitan has improved greatly in the past few years. Many achievements have been made including the updated management plan and identification of a buffer zone, control of vehicle access, and having a security station fixed at the site. These improvements have been recognised through the site's inclusion on the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas. Financial resources have been a challenge to management, however recent increases in the budget allocations seek to address this issue.

Full assessment

Click the + and - signs to expand or collapse full accounts of information under each topic. You can also view the entire list of information by clicking Expand all on the top left.

Finalised on
01 Dec 2020

Description of values

Large number of skeletons of a wide variety of fossilized Eocene whales and other marine fossils

Criterion
(viii)
Wadi Al-Hitan is the most important site in the world to demonstrate one of the iconic changes that make up the record of life on Earth: the evolution of the whales. It portrays vividly their form and mode of life during their transition from land animals to a marine existence. It exceeds the values of other comparable sites in terms of the number, concentration and quality of its fossils, and their accessibility and setting in an attractive and protected landscape (World Heritage Committee, 2012). Iconic assemblage of fossilized skeletons of Archaeoceti (primitive whales documenting cetacean transition to marine life), sirenians and reptiles, as well as shark teeth from Gehannam Formation (40-41 million years ago). Additional whale skeletons from Birket Qarun Formation. 4 classes, 15 families and 25 genera of vertebrates represented. Largest concentration of intact skeletons worldwide. Qasr El-Sagha Formation (39-40 million years old), with fossilized marine and shallow marine invertebrate remains (UNEP-WCMC, 2011).

Assessment information

Low Threat
Damage, theft and vandalism by visitors, including damage by offroad vehicles, are the main current threats to the fossils protected by the site. Natural wind erosion also affects exposed fossils. Whilst this is a natural process and can be considered part of the dynamics of the site, the fragility of the whale skeletons is such that they require protection in order to conserve their Outstanding Universal Value.
Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
(Vandalism, theft and/or damage by visitors)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
There was a threefold increase of annual visitor numbers to ca. 12,000 between 2005 and 2008 (UNEP-WCMC, 2011), but a subsequent drop in numbers by almost 50% after January 2011 (El-Kholei, 2013). By summer 2018, the number of visitors had reached 40,000 (IUCN Consultation, 2020). While the impact from theft on the whale skeletons remains low as detailed in UNESCO, 2010, due to their size and weight, they are physically fragile and sensitive to impacts from vandalism. A 2017 survey of experts stated that vandalism occurrs in the site through visitors carving their name on walls of the valley to memorialize their visit (Kamel et al., 2017). This is in accordance with Ibrahim, 2008 who previously reported this action in Wadi Al-Hitan. Enforcement and control on fossil collection has been strengthened through police check points at the park main gate and permanent presence of Wadi Al-Hitan staff members. Several workshops were also organized to raise public awareness (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
(Damage by offroad cars and tracks)
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Some unofficial access tracks to the site (e.g. from the northern Baharia road) lead through areas containing fossils, which may lead to damage or destruction. One case of fossil destruction was documented, however this was over a decade ago in in 2007 (Nasrawi, 2007). Enforcement logistics are challenging due to the site's remote location (UNEP-WCMC, 2011), however it is believed that the official track to the Baharia road serves tourism pathways for the most part and limits unofficial tracks to outside the boundaries of the site (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Remaining subsidiary tracks have been physically closed by natural sandstone blocks preventing the possible access to the property (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Along all official tracks to Baharia and others outside the property, signposts are established with geographic coordinates indicating the only access to the site (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Erosion and Siltation/ Deposition
(Physical degradation of exposed fossils through wind erosion)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Damage by natural erosion is slow and overall not significant (UNEP-WCMC, 2011). It is a natural process that is part of the dynamics of the site, but the fragility of the whale skeletons requires that they are protected against additional destruction, e.g. Exposed parts have been protected through polymer embedding by site managers. To address this threat, in 2013 an MOU was signed with the Mansoura University Vertebrate Paleontology Center for research, capacity building and monitoring and maintenance activities, including a mandate to train students in in situ fossil restoration and maintenance, which continues to be implemented (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Low Threat
Climate change is a growing potential threat, which may alter the rate and impact of natural erosion of fossils with Egypt facing dramatic changes in the climate in the temperatures and precipitation level, including more storms and rainfall in winter, spring and autumn. This will require a comprehensive program for fossil maintenance and conservation.
Temperature extremes, Storms/Flooding
(Temperature extremes and storms/flooding)
Low Threat
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Outside site
Climate change is a growing potential threat, which may alter the rate and impact of natural erosion of fossils with Egypt facing dramatic changes in the climate in the temperatures and precipitation level (World Data, 2020), including more storms and rainfall in winter, spring and autumn. This will require a comprehensive program for fossil maintenance and conservation in site (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Damage, theft and vandalism by visitors, including damage by offroad vehicles, remain the main current threats to the site's fossils, however these tourism and visitation associated threats are managed in order to mitigate their impacts on the values of the site to the extent possible and as such can be considered low threats overall. Whilst the natural process of wind erosion can be considered part of the dynamics of the site, the fragility of the exposed fossils of Wadi Al-Hitan requires that this is treated as a threat to the values of the site and managed accordingly, especially in the context of climate change whereby altered climatic conditions in the future may potentially lead to increased erosion of the fossils held at the site.
Management system
Mostly Effective
Although it has no separate plan, Wadi Al-Hitan is part of Wadi El-Rayan protected area, and is managed within its administrative system and boundaries under the national regulatory law on Nature Protectorates (World Heritage Committee, 2012). In 2019, the management plan of Wadi El-Rayan was updated and implemented (Mohammad et al., 2019), in which the site values, boundaries, characteristics, infrastructure, threats etc. are set out in detail. In addition, objectives to manage the reserve were provided including specific articles for Wadi Al-Hitan as well as a detailed workplan. Also in 2018, the site was added to the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas having successfully fulfilled the required criteria including good governance, effective management, and successful conservation outcomes (IUCN, 2020).
Effectiveness of management system
Highly Effective
The most up-to-date plan published in 2019 is implemented according to the set workplan. The management system is highly effective, as evidenced by it's inclusion on the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas (IUCN, 2020) and a score of 67 in a 2020 Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) assessment for the Wadi El-Rayan Protected Areas, of which Wadi Al-Hitan is a component of. This is further evidenced through the collaboration protocol signed with Mansoura University in 2013, still active and implemented successfully where several research projects have been conducted in order to enhance the management of the site.
Boundaries
Mostly Effective
Boundaries are defined in the updated management plan, including a zonation map which identifies the buffer zone of Wadi Al-Hitan (Mohammad et al., 2019). However, it is still recommended to establish more detailed maps, which are specific for Wadi Al-Hitan, in which a description for each zone should be provided. Jebel Qatrani was included in the updated management plan, as recommended by IUCN and World Heritage Committee Decision 29 COM 8B.5. However, the Jebel Qatrani site is administered under Qaroun Protected Area which has its own technical and administrative staff. 
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Mostly Effective
Site protection is supported by Prime ministerial Decree No. 2954/1997 (World Heritage Committee, 2012) and well integrated into the wider Wadi El-Rayyan National Park which encompasses the site. In 2018, Wadi Al-Hitan was included on the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas, and is part of regional planning systems. 
Relationships with local people
Mostly Effective
There are no permamnent residents in the site, but there is an effective relationship with locals mainly through employment as guards in management and tourism. The site management has worked with the local communities to build their capacity in regards to the site but also with regards to building their skills for offering these services to the tourists (Borges et al, 2011). Although an earlier report (Paleczny et al, 2007) produced by the Nature Conservation Sector of the EEAA found that local communities around the Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area had limited awareness of the benefits the protected area provided to their communities, Wadi Al-Hitan has been identified as a good example of how well planned tourism development can provide local benefits (Borges et al., 2011). Since 2011, stronger involvement of the local communities has been built through increased opportunities for local jobs (UNDP EIECP III, 2019) in Wadi El-Rayan and Qaroun mainly for World Heritage promotion. The management unit of both WRPA and Qaroun have also developed multiple 'on the job' training projects and workshops for local tour guides to enhance their performance in the site management and control. However, overall, considering the decline of tourism in Egypt and the current political challenges, involvement of local communities might need to include other mechanisms such as allowing for a stronger role in decision making and management planning of the site. 
Legal framework
Mostly Effective
The property is protected as part of Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area (WRPA) under Egyptian Law No. 102 (1983) for Protected Areas, and enforced by Nature Conservation Sector (NCS) of Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) (World Heritage Committee, 2012). The 2014 Egyptian Constitution commits the State towards the conservation of natural resources for next generations under Acts 32, 45 & 46.
Law enforcement
Mostly Effective
Enforcement logistics are challenging due to the Site's remote location (UNEP-WCMC, 2011). The number of staff who are able to carry out functions relating to law enforcement has fallen to nine rangers and 2 security guards from 28 such staff in 2011. Despite the limited number of rangers, the fixed security station has supported the enforcement efforts, and other team members (such as financial and administrative staff) are acting as rangers and following up any violations. Whilst this is not an ideal scenario, the level of law enforcement required at this remote property is relatively low and so can be considered mostly effective.   
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Mostly Effective
Recommendations from Committee Decision 29 COM 8B.5 regarding visitor infrastructure, strengthening management capacities, and vehicular traffic management were mostly met by the 34th session of the Committee in 2010 (UNESCO, 2010). In response to Committee Decision 32 COM 7B.5, there was significant progress in the management of the property, including in relation to monitoring and the development of sustainable tourism (UNESCO, 2010). Recommendations from Committee Decision 34 COM 7B.8 regarding developing a proposal for changing the property boundary remain to be reported on formally through the mechanisms of the Convention, however these issues are by-and-large covered under the revised management system for the wider Wadi El-Rayyan PA.
Sustainable use
Highly Effective
There is no significant resource use other than tourism within the property. Although, the impacts from illegal fossil collection has been decreased significantly after having a security station fixed at the site as well as the raised awareness tools for visitors (IUCN Consultation, 2020). Therefore, the sustainable use at the property is assessed as Highly Effective.
Sustainable finance
Mostly Effective
Annual governmental funding through the EEAA (for both WRPA and Lake Qarun PA) has increased over the course of the last decade from ca. $28,220 in 2007 to US$ 89.171 in the 2018/19 fiscal year (IUCN Consultation, 2020). In addition, external funding to the tune of around US$ one million to develop infrastructure that will be put to bid by nationals and local communities for eco-tourism and other natural activities in both Protected areas has been brought by the Egyptian Italian Environmental Cooperation. A concession study for tourism activities had been developed and comes to eleven activities to be bid for during the year 2020, which are enhancing the financial sustainability of the site (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Staff capacity, training, and development
Mostly Effective
The staff capacity is mostly effective and 'the site is managed “with love” by the staff members, who are qualified, committed and excelling in their work' (IUCN, 2020). However, there is no evidence of a structured program for staff training and capacity development.
Education and interpretation programs
Highly Effective
Adequate education and interpretation facilities (visitor centre, signposting, information panels, leaflets, brochures and video) are in place (Debonnet, 2007, El-Hennawy et al., 2010). A Fossils Climate Change Museum opened in January 2016, featuring the Basilosaurus (of which a fully intact fossil was recently discovered) as it's main figure (IUCN, 2015).
Tourism and visitation management
Mostly Effective
Vehicle access is not permitted (World Heritage Committee, 2012), with vehicular traffic regulated in the open air museum (UNESCO, 2010), and visitors are restricted to pre-arranged tours along prescribed trails by foot or camel (UNEP-WCMC, 2011). There are specialized eco-tourism zones, with others for research and study. Extensive interpretation and visitor guiding facilities were established by 2010. There is limited on-site accommodation (World Heritage Committee, 2012), including possibly a camping site and eco-lodge which were planned in 2007 (Debonnet, 2007). Cooperation with interested tourism/trekking companies offers added value. A possible need to further improve 4x4 access management was noted in 2010, but unauthorized access from the north was reduced to non-significant levels by 2010 (IUCN Consultation, 2011, IUCN, 2010). The previous increase in visitor numbers had been facilitated by a significant investment in well designed tourism facilities outside the main fossil bearing layers. The infrastructure of the site has been further enhanced in 2014 and 2016 to have the open air enhancement and site museum (Fossil and Climate Change Museum). Due to the museum and other management measures the 2019 summer visitation to the site reached more than 40,000 people (IUCN Consultation, 2020).
Monitoring
Highly Effective
Inventory works have been ongoing since the 1980s, and a monitoring programme has been in place since 1998. Documentation and monitoring of new finds is ongoing, whilst more extensive geological surveys are undertaken twice a year. Visitor monitoring has been inplace since 2005 (El-Hennawy et al., 2010). The site is patrolled daily to catch illegal visitors and twice a week a team monitors the condition of the fossils, photographing them and when necessary repairing damage (UNEP-WCMC, 2011).
Research
Highly Effective
The fossils of the site have been subject to strong scientific interest since 1980s with exploration continuing and more fossils expected to be discovered in the future (UNEP-WCMC, 2011) with on-site experitse in geology. Exemplary research collaboration between EEAA, Egyptian Geological Survey and University of Michigan, with a site staff training component agreed in 2005 and ongoing (Debonnet, 2007, IUCN Consultation, 2011). The world’s only intact fossil of an early whale – the Basilosaurus dating to about 40 million years ago – was uncovered during an excavation 2015. The discovery reveals for the first time the creature’s complete skeleton and includes fossilized remains of other sea creatures inside its stomach (IUCN, 2015).
Overall, the protection and management of Wadi Al-Hitan has improved greatly in the past few years. Many achievements have been made including the updated management plan and identification of a buffer zone, control of vehicle access, and having a security station fixed at the site. These improvements have been recognised through the site's inclusion on the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas. Financial resources have been a challenge to management, however recent increases in the budget allocations seek to address this issue.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Mostly Effective
Site management has been enhanced significantly within the wider Wadi El Rayan Protected Area under the national regulatory law on Nature Protectorates (World Heritage Committee, 2012), such that the site has been declared on the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas. However, some issues are still observed especially with the boundaries, and making specific provisions to deal with Wadi Al-Hitan within the overall management plan of Wadi Rayan Protected Area (WRPA).
Best practice examples
The visitor and interpretation facilities established at Wadi Al-Hitan have not only made this site more attractive and informative to visitors, but also greatly contributed to reducing unregulated access with potential negative impacts on the site. These facilities and the underlying plans and concepts are a best practice example for other similar sites (Abulhawa et al, 2014). The successful and early involvement of local stakeholders in site conservation was instrumental in maintaining its values even during times of political and socio-economic stresses in the country (Abulhawa et al, 2014).
World Heritage values

Large number of skeletons of a wide variety of fossilized Eocene whales and other marine fossils

Good
Trend
Stable
Whale and vertebrate skeletons remain generally well-preserved. 40% of known fossils in good condition, 42% weathered, 18% severely weathered in 2009 (El-Hennawy et al., 2010). However, there is a need to assess the impact of climate change impact on the weathering rate of the fossils.
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Good
Trend
Stable
Overall the status of whale skeletons and other fossils is very good. Different stages of weathering (from natural erosion) and some limited impact of damage/removal by visitors can be observed.

Additional information

Importance for research
The outstanding paleontological values of the site are recognized by its inscription on the World Heritage List under criterion viii. In addition, a protocol was signed with Al Mansura University, to encourage students to explore the field of conservation of geological features and protected areas management. This has supported the ownership values toward the site, and enabled many students to engage as active members in the conservation process.
Outdoor recreation and tourism
Visitation of the site has been limited in the past (ca. 12,000 visitors in 2008), but increasing to around 40,000 in recent years (IUCN Consultation, 2020), and attractiveness of the site supports potential further growth in visitation.
Contribution to education
The number and diversity of fossil remains at the site offer an impressive insight into evolution and the history of Earth, which is of high educational value and has potential to be realized to a greater extent as visitation increases. Specimens from Wadi Al-Hitan are currently displayed in several institutions: 56 specimens are preserved in the Cairo Geological Museum; others are held in London, Berlin, Stuttgart and the University of Michigan where there is a complete Dorudon atrox skeletal mount on exhibit (UNEP-WCMC, 2011), and the world’s only intact fossil of an early whale was uncovered during a new excavation (IUCN, 2015).
Tourism-related income,
Provision of jobs
Although recent data is unavailble, the site supported 19 direct conservation jobs and 15 families benefiting from tourism and visitation of site from the most recent data, in an area with limited income sources. In Wadi Al-Hitan, tourism development has occurred mainly at small scale and through local communities who offer most of the services available to the visitors. The site management has worked with the local communities to build their capacity in regards to the site but also with regards to building their skills for offering these services to the tourists. Economic development of local communities has been another outcome of well-planned tourism at Wadi Al Hitan (Borges et al, 2011). Members of the local community have also been trained on restoration and conservation of the site's fossils, and are hired as rangers and guards.
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
The impacts of the fluctuation of benefits derived from the site by local communities due to tourism decline need to be carefully monitored.
The rich benefits of the site are based on its paleontological values and are mainly in the area of tourism, knowledge building and education. However, given the remoteness and desert environment of the site, it also provides significant socio-economic benefits to the local population. Efforts need to be made to monitor this relationship to ensure the site's ability to remain inclusive and participative.

References

References
1
Abulhawa, T., Abdulhalim, H., Osipova, E., Cummings, T. (2014). TABE'A II Report - Enhancing Regional Capacities for World Heritage. Amman, Jordan: IUCN. ii + 74pp.
2
Borges, M.A., Carbone, G., Bushell, R. and Jaeger, T. (2011). Sustainable Tourism and natural World Heritage – Priorities for action. [online] Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 29pp. Available at: https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/import/downloads/susta… [Accessed 24 November 2020].
3
Debonnet, G. (2007). ’Mission report of field visit to Wadi Al-Hitan World Heritage Property (Egypt).’ [online] Paris, France: World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1186/documents/ [Accessed 24 November 2020].
4
El-Hennawy, M. T., Sameh Anter, M. (2010). ’State of World Heritage Site, Wadi El-Hitan, 1st 5 year report’. Wadi Al-Hitan, Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area, Nature Conservation Sector, EEAA, Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs.
5
El-Kholei, A. (2013). Evaluation of Egyptian Italian Environmental Cooperation Programme. [online] UNDP-Egypt. Available at: https://erc.undp.org/evaluation/evaluations/detail/6566 [Accesed 24 November 2020].
6
Gee, C.T., Sander, P.M., Peters, S.E. et al. (2019). Fossil burrow assemblage, not mangrove roots: reinterpretation of the main whale-bearing layer in the late Eocene of Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt. Palaeobio Palaeoenv, 99, pp.143–158 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-018-0337-0
7
IUCN Consultation. (2011). IUCN World Heritage Confidential Consultation: Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley), Egypt
8
IUCN Consultation. (2020). IUCN World Heritage Confidential Consultation: Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley), Egypt
9
IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas. (2020). Wadi Al-Hitan. [online] Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Available at: https://iucngreenlist.org/sites/wadi-al-hitan/ [Accessed 30 September 2020]. 
10
IUCN. (2014). Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley)- World Heritage Outlook assessment. [online] IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Available at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/… [Accessed 7 December 2016].
11
IUCN. (2015). First intact fossil of prehistoric whale discovered in Wadi Al-Hitan. 10 Jun, Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Available at: https://www.iucn.org/content/first-intact-fossil-prehistori… 7 December 2016].
12
Ibrahim, O. E. (2008). Pharaonic, Graeco-Roman, and Coptic Archaeological Sites in the Fayoum involved in Ecotourism Programmes. PhD Thesis. Fayoum: Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Fayoum University.
13
Kamel, M. Y., Hassan, S. B., & Wafik, G. M. (2017). The Challenges of Geotourism in Egypt: A Case Study of Wadi Al-Hitan. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Systems, 10(2), pp.32-46.
14
Mohammad, A.S., Mohammad, M.S., and Hanawi, M.T. (2019). Wadi El-Rayan Management Plan. Ministry of Environment. Egypt
15
Nasrawi, S. (2007). Egypt: Belgian Diplomats Damaged Fossils. [online] 27 August, Newsok. Available at:  https://oklahoman.com/article/3112462/egypt-belgian-diploma…? [Accessed 24 November 2020].
16
Paleczny, D., Allam, K., Talaat, M. (2007). The State of Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area and Valley of the Whales World Heritage Site, An Evaluation of Management Effectiveness. Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Programme, Nature Conservation Sector Capacity Building Project, Cario.
17
Talaat, M. (2008). Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area Management Plan. Egyptian Italian Environmental Cooperation Programme. Nature Conservation Sector. Cairo.
18
UNDP Egyptian Italian Environmental Cooperation (EIECP) Phase III. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.eg.undp.org/content/egypt/en/home/projects/egyp… [Accessed 24 November 2020].
19
UNEP-WCMC. (2011). ‘Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley), Egypt’. UNEP-WCMC World Heritage Information Sheets. [online] Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC. Available at: http://world-heritage-datasheets.unep-wcmc.org/datasheet/ou… 13 December 2016].
20
UNESCO (2010). Report on the State of Conservation of Wadi Al-Hitan, Egypt. State of Conservation Information System of the World Heritage Centre. [online] Paris, France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1186/documents/ [Accessed 24 November 2020].
21
World Data. (2020). Climate in Egypt. [online] Available at: https://www.worlddata.info/africa/egypt/climate.php [Accessed 10 July 2020]. 
22
World Heritage Committee. (2010). Decision : 34 COM 7B.8, Wadi Al-Hitan (Egypt) (N 1186). In: Report of decisions of the 34th session of the World Heritage Committee (Brasília, 2010). [online] Paris, France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4116 [Accessed 24 November 2020].

Would you like to share feedback to support the accuracy of information for this site? If so, send your comments below.